|Gatha||Sentence Translation||Sentence Structure|
One is not a sage by keeping a vow of silence, if he is
deluded and ignorant.
Who accepts only the best, as if holding a scale, is a wise man.
na monena muni
| | | | | | |
neg. N.n. N.m. V.act.in. Adj. Adj.m. Adj.m.
| Ins.Sg. Nom.Sg. 3.Sg.pres. | Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.
|______|______|_________| |_____| |
|___| | |__________|
List of Abbreviations
va paggayha varam adaya
| | | | | | | |
Rel.Pron.m. conj. N.f. part. V.ger. Adj.n. V.ger. N.m.
Nom.Sg. | Acc.Sg. | | Acc.Sg. | Nom.Sg.
|____________| |_____|_____| |_____| |
| |__| | |
| |________________| |
na, neg.: not.
monena: mona-, N.n.: silence, a vow of silence (as kept by some ascetics). Ins.Sg. = monena.
muni: muni-, N.m.: sage, a wise man (originally one who keeps the vow of silence). Nom.Sg. = muni. The form muni is sometimes used in poetry.
hoti, V. is. The verb root is bhu- (to be). 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = bhavati or hoti.
Adj.: foolish, deluded. It is a compound of:
mulha-, Adj.: foolish, deluded. It is a p.p. of the verb root muh- (to be deluded).
rupa-, N.n.: form, appearance, figure.
Nom.Sg.m. = mulharupo.
aviddasu: aviddasu-, Adj.: ignorant, foolish. It is the word viddasu-, Adj.: skilled, wise (this word is derived from the verb root vid-, to know), negated by the negative prefix a-. Nom.Sg.m. = aviddasu.
List of Abbreviations
yo: yad-, Rel.Pron.: that which. Nom.Sg.m. = yo.
ca, conj.: and.
tulaj: tula-, N.f.: weigh, scale. Acc.Sg. = tulaj.
va, part.: as, like.
paggayha, V.ger.: having taken, holding. The verb root is gah- (to hold) with the strengthening prefix pa-.
varam: vara-, Adj.: best. Nom.Sg.n. = varam.
adaya, V.ger.: having taken. The verb root is da- (to give), with the prefix a- (from). Thus a- + da- (to take).
pandito: pandita-, N.m.: wise man, learned man. Nom.Sg. = pandito.
List of Abbreviations
This verse consists of two syntactically
separate sentences. They are:
1) na monena muni hoti mulharupo aviddasu (one is not a sage by keeping a vow of silence, if he is deluded and ignorant). There are two subjects, the adjectives mulharupo (deluded, nominative singular) and aviddasu (ignorant, nominative singular). The verb is hoti (is, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). The verb has an attribute, the noun monena (by silence, instrumental singular). The object is the noun muni (sage, nominative singular).
2) yo ca tulaj va paggayha varam adaya pandito (who accepts only the best, as if holding a scale, is a wise man). This can be analysed into two sentences:
a) yo ca tulaj va paggayha varam adaya (who accepts only the best, as if holding a scale). This can be further analysed into the main sentence I) and the clause II):
I) yo ca varam adaya (who accepts only the best). The subject is the relative pronoun yo (who, nominative singular). The verb is in gerund, adaya (having taken). The object is the adjective varam (the best, accusative singular). The conjunction ca (and) serves mainly for metrical purposes.
II) tulaj va paggayha (as if holding a scale). The subject is omitted, implying the word yo from the main sentence. The verb is in gerund, paggayha (having taken). The object is the noun tulaj (scale, accusative singular). The particle va (as) connects the clause to the main sentence.
b) pandito (he is a wise man). The subject is omitted; the third person singular pronoun is implied. Also the verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the noun pandito (wise man, nominative singular).
At the Buddha's times there were many
ascetic orders. Some of them went for almsfood just like the Buddha's monks.
After being offered food, some of them would say a few words of blessing;
such as "May you be well and happy, may you live long." The Buddha's monks
were at first instructed to keep silent.
Some followers of the Buddha began to complain about that and wanted to hear some blessing also from the Buddha's monks. The Buddha then instructed his monks to do so, in order to keep lay followers happy.
Then some other ascetics, who kept silence after being offered food, said that the Buddha's monks were not true sages (muni) because they did not keep the vow of silence in public (mona).
The Buddha reacted with this verse (and the following one, DhP 269).