Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

cattari thanani naro pamatto

apajjati paradarupasevi

apubbalabhaj nanikamaseyyaj

nindaj tatiyaj nirayaj catutthaj

(DhP 309)

Sentence Translation:

The negligent man, who chases after others' wives,
will get into these four states:
accumulation of demerit, uncomfortable bed,
blame as the third, hell as the fourth.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

cattari    thanani    naro   pamatto
|                  |           |            |
Num.n.    N.n.     N.m.     Adj.m.
Acc.Pl.  Acc.Pl. Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.
|__________|           |_______|
         |                            |________________________I.

List of Abbreviations

  apajjati    para+dara+upasevi
        |             |         |         |     Adj.   N.f.  Adj.m.
  3.Sg.pres.     |_____|   Nom.Sg.
        |                 |________|
II.__|            |

List of Abbreviations

apubba+labhaj  na+nikama+seyyaj
|                 |        |         |            |
N.n.        N.m.  neg.  N.m.      N.f.
|            Acc.Sg.  |_____|       Acc.Sg.
|_________|             |__________|

List of Abbreviations

nindaj  tatiyaj nirayaj catutthaj
|                 |           |              |
N.f.       Num.f.   N.m.     Num.m.
Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.    Acc.Sg.
|__________|          |________|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

cattari: catur-, Num.: four. Acc.Pl.n. = cattari.

thanani: thana-, N.n.: place, condition, state. It is derived from the verb root tha- (to stay).
Acc.Pl. = thanani.

naro: nara-, N.m.: man, person. Nom.Sg. = naro.

pamatto: pamatta-, Adj.: negligent, careless. It is a p.p. of the verb root is mad- (to be intoxicated) with the strengthening prefix pa-. Nom.Sg.m. = pamatto.

apajjati, V.: gets into, meets with. The verb root is pad- (to go) with the prefix a- (towards). = apajjati.

List of Abbreviations

paradarupasevi: paradarupasevin-, Adj.: who is chasing others' wives. It is a compound of:
    paradara-, N.f.: other' wife. It is a compound of:
        para-, Adj.: different, other.
        dara-, N.f.: wife.
    upasevin-, Adj.: pursuing, chasing, going after. It is derived from the verb root sev- (to associate) with the prefix upa- (near) and the possessive suffix -in.
Euphonic combination: paradara- + upasevin- = paradarupasevin-.
Nom.Sg.m. = paradarupasevi.

apubbalabhaj: apubbalabha-, N.m.: accumulation of demerit. It is a compound of:
    apubba-, N.n.: demerit, evil. It is the word pubba-, N.n.: merit, goodness, virtue, meritorious action, negated by the negative prefix a-.
    labha-, N.m.: gain, obtaining, accumulating. It is derived from the verb root labh- (to obtain).
Acc.Sg. = apubbalabhaj.

List of Abbreviations

nanikamaseyyaj: nanikamaseyya-, N.f.: uncomfortable bed. It is a compound of:
    nanikama-, Adj.: uncomfortable. This can be further analysed into:
        na, neg.: not.
        nikama-, N.m.: pleasure, longing, wish, desire.
    seyya-, N.f.: bed, couch.
Acc.Sg. = nanikamaseyyaj.

nindaj: ninda-, N.f.: blame, reproach. Acc.Sg. = nindaj.

tatiyaj: tatiya-, Num.: third. Acc.Sg.f. = tatiyaj.

nirayaj: niraya-, N.m.: hell. Acc.Sg. = nirayaj.

catutthaj: catuttha-, Num.: fourth. Acc.Sg.m. = catutthaj.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of five syntactically separate sentences. They are:
    1) cattari thanani naro pamatto apajjati paradarupasevi (the negligent man, who chases after others' wives, will get into four states). The subject is the noun naro (man, nominative singular). It has two attributes, the past participle pamatto (negligent, nominative singular) and the compound paradarupasevi (chasing after others' wives, nominative singular). The verb is apajjati (goes to, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun thanani (places, accusative plural) with its attribute, the numeral cattari (four, accusative plural).
    In the remaining four, the subject and the verb of the first sentence are implied.
    2) apubbalabhaj (accumulation of demerit, accusative singular). The word is an object.
    3) nanikamaseyyaj (uncomfortable bed, accusative singular). The word is an object).
    4) nindaj tatiyaj (blame as the third). The object is the noun nindaj (blame, accusative singular). It has an attribute, the numeral tatiyaj (third, accusative singular).
    5) nirayaj catutthaj (hell as the fourth). The object is the noun nirayaj (hell, accusative singular). It has an attribute, the numeral catutthaj (fourth, accusative singular).


    The famous benefactor Anatha Pindika had a nephew named Khema. He was not only very rich, but also very handsome. Women fell attracted to him and Khema committed adultery often. He was caught several times, but the king did not take any actions against him, out of respect for his uncle. When Anatha Pindika found out, he took Khema to see the Buddha. The Buddha spoke this verse (and the following one, Dhp 310) enumerating the bad results of adultery. Khema changed his behavior and observed the code of morality, the Five Precepts.

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