|Gatha||Sentence Translation||Sentence Structure|
People followed by thirst crawl around like a captured
Therefore you should remove thirst and wish for being free of passions yourselves.
paja parisappanti saso
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N.f. Adj.f. N.f. V.act.in. N.m. part. Adj.m.
Ins.Sg. Nom.Pl. Nom.Pl. 3.Pl.pres. Nom.Sg. | Nom.Sg.
|___________| | | |______|_____|
|_____________| | |__|
List of Abbreviations
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Pron. N.f. V.caus.act. V.med. N.m. Pron.m.
Abl.Sg. Acc.Sg. 3.Sg.opt. 3.Pl.imp. Acc.Sg. Gen.Sg.
| |_______| | |_______|
tasinaya: tasina-, N.f.: thirst, craving. It is a different form of the word tanha-, N.f. Ins.Sg. = tasinaya.
purakkhata: purakkhata-, Adj.: honored, preferred. Here in the meaning of followed, encircled. Nom.Pl.f. = purakkhata.
paja: paja-, N.f.: beings, people, mankind. Nom.Pl. = paja.
parisappanti, V.: crawl, run about. The verb root is sap- (to crawl) with the prefix pari- (around). 3.Pl.act.in.pres. = parisappanti.
saso: sasa-, N.m.: hare, rabbit. Nom.Sg. = saso.
va, part.: as, like.
bandhito: bandhita-, Adj.: bound, caught.
It is a p.p. of the verb root bandh- (to bind).
Nom.Sg.m. = bandhito.
List of Abbreviations
tasma: tad-, Pron.: that. Abl.Sg. = tasma (therefore, lit. "from that").
tasinaj: tasina-, N.f.: see above. Acc.Sg. = tasinaj.
vinodaye, V.: [one] should remove, dispel, put away. It is a caus. of the verb root nud- (to expel) with the prefix vi- (away). 3.Sg.act.caus.opt. = vinodaye.
akavkhantaj, V.: [people] should desire, wish for. The verb root is kavkh- (to look forward to, to desire) with the prefix a- (towards). 3.Pl.med.imp. = akavkhantaj.
viragam: viraga-, N.m.: absence of desire, absence of passion. It is the word raga-, N.m.: desire, passion, with the prefix vi- (away from, without). Acc.Sg. = viragam.
attano: attan-, N.m./Pron.: self, oneself. Gen.Sg. = attano.
List of Abbreviations
This verse consists of two syntactically
separate sentences. They are:
1) tasinaya purakkhata paja parisappanti saso va bandhito (people followed by thirst crawl around like a captured hare). This can be further analysed into the main sentence a) and the dependent clause b):
a) tasinaya purakkhata paja parisappanti (people followed by thirst crawl around). The subject is the noun paja (people, nominative plural). It has an attribute, the adjective purakkhata (followed, nominative plural) with its own attribute, the noun tasinaya (by thirst, instrumental singular). The verb is parisappanti (crawl around, 3rd person, plural, active, indicative, present tense).
b) saso va bandhito (like a captured hare). The subject is the noun saso (hare, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the past participle bandhito (captured, nominative singular). The particle va (as, like) connects the clause to the main sentence.
2) tasma tasinaj vinodaye akavkhantaj viragam attano (therefore you should remove thirst and wish for being free of passions yourselves). This can be further analysed into two segments:
a) tasma tasinaj vinodaye (therefore you should remove thirst). The subject is omitted; the verb implies the third person singular pronoun. The verb is vinodaye (one should remove, 3rd person, singular, active, causative, optative). The object is the noun tasinaj (thirst, accusative singular). The pronoun tasma (therefore, ablative singular) introduces the sentence.
b) akavkhantaj viragam attano (and wish for being free of passions yourselves). The subject is omitted; the verb implies the third person plural pronoun. The verb is akavkhantaj ([they] should wish for, 3rd person, plural, medium, imperative). The object is the noun viragam (absence of desire, accusative singular). It has an attribute, the noun/pronoun attano (one's own, genitive singular).
The story for this verse is identical
with the one for the five previous verses (DhP 338, DhP 339, DhP 340, DhP
341 and DhP 342).
Because of craving people "crawl around" from existence into existence. Just like a captured hare tries very hard to escape but the fetter is stronger, so it manages only to cut itself. People also try to be free but do it the wrong way, only falling more and more deeply into the snare of passions and repeated existence. The solution is to remove all the passion and thirst and escape the snare of Samsara forever.