Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

parijinnam idaj rupaj roganilaj pabhavguraj

bhijjati putisandeho maranantaj hi jivitaj

(DhP 148)

Sentence Translation:

Decayed is this body, a frail nest of diseases.
This foul mass breaks up. Indeed, the life ends in death.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

parijinnam idaj     rupaj   roga+nilaj pabhavguraj
|                  |             |           |       |               |
Adj.n.     Pron.n.     N.n.    N.m. N.n.       Adj.n.
Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.   |   Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.
|                  |_______|           |____|               |
|______________|                      |__________|

List of Abbreviations

bhijjati     puti+sandeho marana+antaj   hi    jivitaj
|                 |         |            |           |         |         |  Adj.   N.m.     N.n.    Adj.n.   part.   N.n.
3.Sg.pres.   |    Nom.Sg.     |     Nom.Sg.   |    Nom.Sg.
|                 |_____|            |______|         |         |
|____________|                       |________|_____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

parijinnam: parijinna-, Adj.: decayed, worn out. It is a p.p. of the verb root ji- (to fade, to decay) with the prefix pari- (completely). Nom.Sg.n. = parijinnam.

idaj: idaj-, Pron.: this. Nom.Sg.n.: idaj.

rupaj: rupa-, N.n.: form, body, figure. Nom.Sg. = rupaj.

roganilaj: roganila-, Adj.: nest of diseases, seat of illnesses. It is a compound of:
    roga-, N.m.: disease, illness.
    nila-, N.n.: nest, seat. Sometimes also spelled as niddha-.
Nom.Sg.n. = roganilaj.

pabhavguraj: pabhavgura-, Adj.: perishable, easily destroyed, frail. Acc.Sg.n. = pabhavguraj.

List of Abbreviations

bhijjati, V.: breaks up, is destroyed. The verb root is bhid-. = bhijjati.

putisandeho: putisandeha-, N.m.: foul mass, rotten body. It is a compound of:
    puti-, Adj.: rotten, foul, putrid.
    sandeha-, N.m.: accumulation, mass, body (even as a human body).
Nom.Sg. = putisandeho.

maranantaj: marananta-, Adj.: ending in death. It is a compound of:
    marana-, N.n.: death.
    anta-, N.n.: end.
Euphonic combination: marana- + anta- = marananta-.
Nom.Sg.n. = maranantaj.

hi, part.: indeed.

jivitaj: jivita-, N.n.: life. Originally it is a p.p. of the verb jiv- (to live). Nom.Sg. = jivitaj.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of three independent sentences. They are:
    1) parijinnam idaj rupaj roganilaj pabhavguraj (decayed is this body, a frail nest of diseases). The subject is the noun rupaj (body, nominative singular). It has two attributes, the pronoun idaj (this, nominative singular) and the adjective parijinnam (decayed, nominative singular). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the compound roganilaj (nest of diseases, nominative singular) with its attribute, the adjective pabhavguraj (frail, nominative singular).
    2) bhijjati putisandeho (this foul mass breaks up). The subject is the compound putisandeho (foul mass, nominative singular) and the verb is bhijjati (breaks up, 3rd person, singular, passive, indicative, present tense).
    3) maranantaj hi jivitaj (indeed, the life ends in death). The subject is the noun jivitaj (life, nominative singular). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the compound adjective maranantaj (ending in death, nominative singular). The sentence is further stressed by the particle hi (indeed), which serves mainly for metrical reasons.


    Uttara was a very old nun - she was one hundred and twenty years old. But se was very generous and respectful. Many times she shared her almsfood with monks, just out of her kindness.
    Once, while going on her almsround, she met the Buddha. Reverentially, she stepped out of his way and paid her homage. While she was doing that, she accidentally stepped on her own robe and fell down.
    The Buddha consoled her and told her to understand the condition of her body. She was very old and her body frail and sick - she should practice diligently to perfect her mind.
    Uttara reflected on the Buddha's words and attained the first stage of Awakenment.

Sentence pronunciation:

Sentence pronunciation

Word pronunciation: