Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

yassa papaj kataj kammaj kusalena pithiyati

so imaj lokaj pabhaseti abbha mutto va candima

(DhP 173)

Sentence Translation:

Who covers his evil deeds with good ones,
illuminates this world like a moon freed from cloud.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

yassa        papaj    kataj   kammaj kusalena  pithiyati
|                   |              |             |             |               |
Rel.Pron.  Adj.n.     Adj.n.      N.n.        N.n.
Gen.Sg.   Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.   Ins.Sg.   3.Sg.pres.
|                   |________|             |             |________|
|                           |___________|                     |
|_____________________|                               |

List of Abbreviations

so            imaj   lokaj  pabhaseti   abbha   mutto     va   candima
|                  |           |            |              |            |          |          |
Pron.m.  Pron.m.  N.m.  V.act.caus.  N.n.    Adj.m.   part.   N.m.
Nom.Sg. Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg. 3.Sg.pres. Abl.Sg. Nom.Sg.   |    Nom.Sg.
|                  |______|            |              |_______|          |          |
|                       |__________|                     |_________|______|
|__________________|                                      |_____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

yassa: yat-, Rel.Pron.: that, which. Gen.Sg.m. = yassa (whose).

papaj: papa-, Adj.: evil, wrong. Nom.Sg.n. = papaj.

kataj: kata-, Adj.: done. P.p. of the verb kar- (to do). Nom.Sg.n. = kataj.

kammaj: kamma-, N.n.: deed, action. Derived from the verb kar- (to do).
Nom.Sg. = kammaj.

kusalena: kusala-, Adj.: good, right, meritorious. As an N.n.: meritorious deed, good deed, merit.
Ins.Sg. = kusalena.

pithiyati, V.: stops, obstructs, covers. This word is very obscure, it is probably a passive form derived from the verb root dha- (to put) with the prefix api- (on, onto). = pithiyati.

List of Abbreviations

so: tad-, Pron.n.: it. Nom.Sg.m. = so.

imaj: idaj, Pron.: this. Acc.Sg.m. = imaj.

lokaj: loka-, N.m.; world.

pabhaseti, V.: illumines, enlighten. The verb root is bhas- (to shine) with the strengthening prefix pa-. 3.Sg.act.caus.pres. = pabhaseti.

abbha: abbha-, N.n.: cloud. Abl.Sg. = abbha.

mutto: mutta-, Adj.: freed, released. It is a p.p. of the verb muc- (to release). Nom.Sg.m. = mutto.

va: a contracted form of eva, part.: just, only.

candima: candima-, N.m.: moon. Nom.Sg. = candima.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of two sentences. They are:
    1) yassa papaj kataj kammaj kusalena pithiyati (who covers his evil deeds with good ones). This sentence is in the passive voice. The subject is the noun kammaj (deed, nominative singular). It has the past participle kataj (done, nominative singular) as the main attribute. This word has the adjective papaj (evil, nominative singular) as an attribute. The relative pronoun yassa (whose, genitive singular) forms an attribute to this whole subject. The verb is pithiyati (is covered, 3rd person, singular, passive, indicative, present tense). It has an attribute, the noun kusalena (by good deed, instrumental singular).
    2) so imaj lokaj pabhaseti abbha mutto va candima (illuminates this world like a moon freed from cloud). This contains the main sentence a) and the clause b):
    a) so imaj lokaj pabhaseti (illuminates this world). The subject is the pronoun so (he, nominative singular). The verb is pabhaseti (illuminates, 3rd person, singular, active, causative, present tense). The object is the noun lokaj (world, accusative singular) with its attribute, the pronoun imaj (this, accusative singular).
    b) abbha mutto va candima (like a moon freed from cloud). The subject is the noun candima (moon, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the past participle mutto (freed, nominative singular) with its attribute, the noun abbha (from cloud, ablative singular). The particle va (as, like) connects the clause to the main sentence.


    In Kosala there lived a Brahmin, who was in the court of King Pasenadi. He had a son Ahimsaka. His father sent him to the famous city of Taksasila for studies. He was very intelligent and obedient and so his teacher and his wife liked him very much. But other students were jealous of him and so accused him of having an affair with teacher's wife. The teacher, being told the same story from number of people, started to believe it. But he did not want to kill Ahimsaka. He came up with another idea.
    At the end of the studies, it was a custom for the students to give presents to teachers and thank them for their effort. Ahimsaka's teacher told him to kill one thousand people and bring him a garland made of one thousand fingers. Ahimsaka had no other choice, but to start killing. He started to wear the garland around his neck to keep track of the number of fingers. He therefore became known as Angulimala ("Finger-garland").
    The king dispatched some soldiers to catch him. When his mother heard about this, she went into the forest in search of her son. By that time, Angulimala's garland had nine hundred and ninety-nine fingers on it; just one finger was missing.
    The Buddha realized that if he did not intervene, Angulimala would kill his own mother in his desperation to make up the one thousand. So he went to the forest himself.
    When Angulimala saw the Buddha, he ran after him with his knife. But no matter ho quickly he ran, the Buddha always stayed ahead of him. Finally, he cried, "O monk, stop!" The Buddha replied, "I have stopped, it is you who has to stop!"
    Angulimala was confused and asked him what he meant. The Buddha explained, that he himself has stopped killing and hurting all living beings whereas Angulimala has not and should therefore stop. Angulimala realized his mistake and asked the Buddha to admit him into the Order of monks. The Buddha did so.
    When the king heard that Angulimala has given up his evil deeds and was now living as a monk, he decided not to prosecute him. Angulimala practiced meditation diligently and in the due course he attained Arahantship.
    But his past evil deeds were always hunting him. Whenever he went on an almsround, he became a target of stones and sticks and returned to the monastery with broken head and bleeding. The Buddha always told him to realize what suffering would await him in his future lives had he not reached the Awakenment.
    One day, Angulimala saw a pregnant woman giving birth and in great pains. He recited, "Sister, since the day I became an Arahant, I have not consciously killed any living being. By the power of this truth, may you and your child be well." The woman delivered instantly and her pain ceased. This verse became known as Angulimala-paritta and is used in similar cases to this day.
    When Angulimala died, other monks asked about his future life. When the Buddha declared, that Angulimala has attained Arahantship and therefore there were no future lives for him, some monks were surprises, how was it possible for somebody who killed so many people to have reached the goal so quickly? The Buddha replied with this verse, saying that Angulimala's evil deeds were negated by his diligent and mindful practice of meditation and highly moral life.

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