Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

dukkhaj dukkhasamuppadaj dukkhassa ca atikkamaj

ariyaj c'atthavgikaj maggaj dukkhupasamagaminaj

(DhP 191)

Sentence Translation:

Suffering, origin of suffering, overcoming of suffering,
and the noble eightfold path, leading to appeasement of suffering.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

dukkhaj dukkha+samuppadaj dukkhassa ca atikkamaj
|                   |               |                  |          |          |
N.n.          N.n.         N.m.            N.n.    conj.   N.m.
Acc.Sg.        |          Acc.Sg.        Gen.Sg.    |     Acc.Sg.
|                   |_________|                 |______|_____|
|                           |                               |___|

List of Abbreviations

ariyaj   ca    attha+avgikaj maggaj dukkha+upasama+gaminaj
|              |        |           |            |            |              |              |
Adj.m. conj. Num.   Adj.m.    N.m.     N.n.        N.m.      Adj.m.
Acc.Sg.   |        |      Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.      |________|         Acc.Sg.
|              |        |______|            |                    |____________|
|              |               |_________|                                |
|________|_____________|                                        |
               |           |_____________________________|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

dukkhaj: dukkha-, N.n.: suffering. Acc.Sg. = dukkhaj.

dukkhasamuppadaj: dukkhasamuppada-, N.m.: origin of suffering. It is a compound of:
    dukkha-, N.n.: suffering.
    samuppada-, N.m.: appearance, origin, coming into existence. It is derived from the verb root pad- (to come) with the prefixes ud- (up) and sam- (together).
Acc.Sg. = dukkhasamuppadaj.

dukkhassa: dukkha-, N.m.: suffering. Gen.Sg. = dukkhassa.

ca, conj.: and.

atikkamaj: atikkama-, N.m.: overcoming, passing beyond. It is derived from the verb root kam- (to go, to walk) with the prefix ati- (over, beyond). Acc.Sg. = atikkamaj.

ariyaj: ariya-, Adj.: noble, distinguished, good. Acc.Sg.m. = ariyaj.

ca: see above.

List of Abbreviations

atthavgikaj: atthavgika-, Adj.: eight-fold, having eight parts. It is a compound of:
    attha-, Num. eight.
    avgika-, Adj.: having a part, having a constituent. It is derived from the word avga-, N.n.: limb, part, constituent.
Euphonic combination: attha- + avgika- = atthavgika-.
Acc.Sg.m. = atthavgikaj.
Euphonic combination: ca + atthavgikaj = c'atthavgikaj.

maggaj: magga-, N.m.: road, path. Acc.Sg. = maggaj.

dukkhupasamagaminaj: dukkhupasamagamin-, Adj.: leading to appeasement of suffering. It is a compound of:
    dukkha-, N.n.: suffering.
    upasama-, N.m.: calm, quiet, appeasement. It is derived from the verb root sam- (to be appeased) with the prefix upa- (towards, up).
    gamin-, Adj.: going, leading to. It is derived from the verb gam- (to go).
Euphonic combination: dukkha- + upasama- = dukkhupasama-.
Acc.Sg. = dukkhupasamagaminaj.

List of Abbreviations

    Syntactically speaking, this verse contains attributes to the object of the second sentence of the previous verse (see DhP 190), the word ariyasaccani (noble truths). There are four attributes:
    1) dukkhaj (suffering, accusative singular).
    2) dukkhasamuppadaj (origin of suffering, accusative singular).
    3) atikkamaj (overcoming, accusative singular). This word has an attribute, the noun dukkhassa (of suffering, genitive singular). It is connected to the previous attribute by the conjunction ca (and).
    4) maggaj (path, accusative singular). This word has two attributes, the compound dukkhupasamagaminaj (leading to appeasement of suffering, accusative singular) and the compound atthavgikaj (eightfold, accusative singular). This last word has its own attribute, the adjective ariyaj (noble, accusative singular). The whole attribute is connected to the previous ones by the conjunction ca (and).


    The story for this verse is identical with the one for the preceding verses (DhP 188, DhP 189, DhP 190) and the following one (DhP 192).
    These are so called Four Noble Truths, one of the most important teachings of the Buddha. They are:

    1) The Truth of Suffering: everything in this world is connected with pain and suffering.
    2) The truth of Origin of Suffering: the root of suffering is our craving.
    3) The truth of Extinction of Suffering: by destroying the craving we also destroy all the suffering.
    4) The truth of the Path, leading to the Extinction of Suffering: this can be done by following the Noble Eightfold Path: Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration.

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