Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
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pujarahe pujayato buddhe yadi va savake

papabcasamatikkante tinnasokapariddave

(DhP 195)

Sentence Translation:

Who pays respects to those worthy of it, The Awakened Ones or their disciples,
who have gone beyond obstacles and overcame grief and sorrow,
[continued in DhP 196].

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

puja+arahe pujayato  buddhe  yadi   va  savake
|           |           |            |           |       |        |
N.f. Adj.m.  Adj.m.    N.m.    part. part.  N.m.
|      Acc.Pl. Gen.Sg. Acc.Pl.      |____|   Acc.Pl.
|______|           |            |               |            |

List of Abbreviations

papabca+samatikkante tinna+soka+pariddave
|                      |              |        |           |
N.m.           Adj.m.      Adj.  N.m.   Adj.m.
|                 Acc.Pl.         |        |      Acc.Pl.
|____________|              |         |______|
           |                         |________|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

pujarahe: pujaraha-, Adj.: worthy of devotion. It is a compound of:
    puja-, N.f.: worship, devotion. It is derived from the verb root puj- (to worship).
    araha-, Adj.: worthy, deserving, entitled to. It is derived from the verb root arah- (to deserve).
Euphonic combination: puja- + araha- = pujaraha-.
Acc.Pl.m. = pujarahe.

pujayato: pujayant-, Adj.: worshipping, paying respects. It is an of the verb root puj- (to worship). Gen.Sg.m. = pujayato.

buddhe: buddha-, Adj.: awakened. It is a p.p. of the verb root budh- (to awaken). As an N.m.: Awakened One, Enlightened One, a being who has attained the Nirvana. Acc.Pl. = buddhe.

yadi, conj.: if.

va, conj: or. Usually written va. Here it is shortened for metrical purposes.
The conjunction phrase yadi va: or be it...).

List of Abbreviations

savake: savaka-, N.m.: "listener", student, pupil. It is derived from the verb root su- (to hear, to listen). Acc.Pl. = savake.

papabcasamatikkante: papabcasamatikkanta-, Adj.: who has gone beyond hindrances to spiritual progress. It is a compound of:
    papabca-, N.m.: hindrance to spiritual progress.
    samatikkanta-, Adj.: passed over, gone beyond. It is a p.p. of the verb root kam- (to go) with the prefixes sam- (altogether) and ati- (beyond).
Acc.Pl.m. = papabcasamatikkante.

tinnasokapariddave: tinnasokaparidava-, Adj.: those, who have overcome grief and sorrow. It is a compound of:
    tinna-, Adj.: overcome, crossed. It is a p.p. of the verb root tar- (to cross).
    soka-, N.m.: grief, sorrow.
    pariddava-, N.m.: probably the metrical substitute for parideva-, N.m.: lamentation, wailing. It is synonymous with the word soka-.
Acc.Pl.m. = tinnasokapariddave.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the active present participle pujayato (of the worshiping one, genitive singular). It has several attributes:
    1) pujarahe (those, who are worthy of respect, accusative plural).
    2) buddhe (Awakened Ones, accusative plural).
    3) savake (disciples, accusative plural). This attribute is connected to the previous one by the particles yadi va (or then...).
    4) papabcasamatikkante (those who have crossed beyond hindrances to spiritual progress, accusative plural).
    5) tinnasokapariddave (those who have overcome grief and sorrow).


    The Buddha was once on a journey with many monks, when they came to a field, which had a Brahmanic shrine nearby. A Brahmin was ploughing the field. Then the Brahmin came to the Buddha, but he paid his respects to the shrine, not to the Buddha. The Buddha praised him for this deed but then told him that there were people and objects more worthy of devotion. He made appear a golden stupa of Kassapa Buddha. He then explained that there were four classes of people worthy of a stupa. They are the Fully Awakened Buddhas, the Pacceka Buddhas (who are also awakened but lack the power to teach the Dharma), the disciples who have reached Awakenment and Universal Monarchs. The Buddha further revealed that there could be three types of stupas. The stupas with corporeal relics of such people inside, the figures and statues of them and the personal effects such as robes or bowls these people used. These people and objects are truly worthy of veneration.
    At the end of the discourse, the Brahmin attained the first stage of Awakenment. The golden stupa remained visible for seven days and many people came to pay their respects. After seven days the stupa disappeared and a stone stupa was erected in its place.

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