Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

te jhāyino sātatikā niccaṃ daḷhaparakkamā

phusanti dhīrā nibbānaṃ yogakkhemaṃ anuttaraṃ

(DhP 23)


Those meditating perseveringly, constantly with strong effort,
those clever ones touch the Nirvana, the highest peace from bondage.

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

te             jhāyino   sātatikā  niccaṃ daḷha+parakkamā
|                    |             |            |           |            |

Pron.        Adj.m.   Adj.m.     Adv.    Adj.       N.m.

Nom.Pl.  Nom.Pl.  Nom.Pl.      |           |       Nom.Pl.

|___________|             |            |           |_______|

          |_____________|            |__________|



List of Abbreviations

phusanti     dhīrā     nibbānaṃ yoga+kkhemaṃ an+uttaraṃ
|                    |              |            |            |         |          |

V.act.in.      N.m.       N.n.      N.m.     N.n.    neg.   Adj.n.

3.Pl.pres.  Nom.Pl.  Acc.Sg.      |       Acc.Sg.    |     Acc.Sg.

|                    |              |           |_______|         |______|

|                    |              |                 |____________|

|                    |              |________________|




Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

te: tat-, Pron.: that. Masculine form sa. Nom.Pl. = te.

jhāyino: jhāyin-, Adj.m.: meditating. Derived from the verb jhe- (to meditate).
Nom.Pl. = jhāyino.

sātatikā: sātatika-, Adj.: persevering. Derived from the word satata-, Adj.: continual. Nom.Pl. = sātatikā.

niccaṃ, Adv.: perpetually, constantly.

List of Abbreviations

daḷhaparakkamā: daḷhaparakkama-, N.m.: having strong effort. A compound of:
    daḷha-, Adj.: strong, firm, solid.

    parakkama-, N.m.: exertion, effort.

Nom.Pl. = daḷhaparakkamā.

phusanti, V.: touch. Verb root phus- (to touch). 3.Pl.in.act.pres. = phusanti.

dhīrā: dhīra-, Adj.: wise, clever. Nom.Pl.m. = dhīrā.

nibbānaṃ: nibbāna-, N.n.: Nirvana, the goal of Buddhism. Acc.Sg. = nibbānaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

yogakkhemaṃ: yogakkhema-, N.n :peace from bondage.
    yoga-, N.m.: bond, yoke.

    khema-, N.n.: shelter, peace.

The doubled k is due to the euphonic combination (yoga + khema = yogakkhema).

Acc.Sg. = yogakkhemaṃ.

anuttaraṃ: anuttara-, Adj.: highest. Literally: "to which there is no higher". It is composed of the word uttara- (uttara-, Adj.: higher) which is preceded by the negative prefix an-. Acc.Sg.n. = anuttaraṃ.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse forms one sentence. Its subject is the pronoun te (they, those, nominative plural). It has many attributes, which agree with it in case and number. They are: 1) jhāyino (meditators, nominative plural), 2) sātatikā (perseverant, nominative plural), 3) daḷhaparakkamā (with strong effort, nominative plural) with its own attribute niccaṃ (constantly) and 4) dhīrā (wise ones, clever ones, nominative plural). The verb is phusanti (touch, 3rd person, plural, active, indicative, present tense). The object is nibbānaṃ (Nirvana, accusative singular), with the attribute yogakkhemaṃ (peace from bondage, accusative singular). This word itself has an attribute, the adjective anuttaraṃ (highest, accusative singular).


    Continuing the line of reasoning from previous verses (DhP 21 and DhP 22), if one knows, that conscientiousness is the key to reaching of the Nirvana, one maintains a high level of it. Applying this conscientiousness to the practice of meditation, one has to persevere, constantly and with strong effort. By this, we are able to reach Nirvana, to really "touch" it here and now. Thus, we obtain the highest peace from bondage, the only true peace and freedom available.

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Sentence pronunciation

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