Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
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hirimata ca dujjivaj niccaj sucigavesina

alinenappagabbhena suddhajivena passata

(DhP 245)

Sentence Translation:

[continuing from DhP 244]
And difficult is life for somebody who has conscience, is always striving for purity,
sincere and cautious, of clean livelihood and seeing the truth.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

hirimata  ca  dujjivaj niccaj suci+gavesina
|               |         |            |         |         |
Adj.m.  conj.  Adj.n.    Adv.  Adj.   Adj.m.
Ins.Sg.     |    Nom.Sg.     |         |     Ins.Sg.
|               |         |            |         |_____|
|               |         |            |________|
               |         |_____|

List of Abbreviations

alinena appagabbhena suddha+ajivena  passata
    |                |                |            |            |
Adj.m.      Adj.m.        Adj.     Adj.m.   Adj.m.
Ins.Sg.      Ins.Sg.           |       Ins.Sg.    Ins.Sg.
    |                |                |_______|            |

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

hirimata: hirimant-, Adj.: modest, having conscience. It is derived from the word hiri-, N.f.: sense of shame, conscience, with the possessive suffix -mant. Ins.Sg.m. = hirimata.

ca, conj.: and.

dujjivaj: dujjiva-, Adj.: difficult to live. It is derived from the verb root jiv- (to live) with the prefix du- (bad, wrong). Nom.Sg.n. = dujjivaj.

niccaj, Adv.: perpetually, constantly.

sucigavesina: sucigavesin-, Adj.: striving to be pure, looking for purity. It is a compound of:
    suci-, Adj.: pure, clean.
    gavesin-, Adj.: seeking, striving after, looking for.
Ins.Sg.m. = sucigavesina.

alinena: alina-, Adj.: open, sincere, active. It is the word lina-, Adj.: dull, sticking, negated by the negative prefix a-. Ins.Sg.m. = alinena.

List of Abbreviations

appagabbhena: appagabbha-, Adj.: careful, cautious. It is the word pagabbha-, Adj.: reckless, daring, negated by the negative prefix a-. Ins.Sg.m. = appagabbhena.
Euphonic combination: alinena + appagabbhena = alinenappagabbhena.

suddhajivena: suddhajiva-, Adj.: having clean livelihood. It is a compound of:
    suddha-, Adj.: clean, pure. It is a p.p. of the verb root sudh- (to clean).
    ajiva-, N.m.: livelihood, way of living.
Euphonic combination: suddha- + ajiva- = suddhajiva-.
Ins.Sg.m. = suddhajivena.

passata: passant-, Adj.: seeing. It is an of the verb root pas-, to see. Ins.Sg.m. = passata.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the adjective dujjivaj (difficult to live, nominative singular). It has six attributes, the adjectives hirimata (by one who has conscience, instrumental singular), alinena (by a sincere one, instrumental singular), appagabbhena (by a cautious one, instrumental singular), suddhajivena (by one who has clean livelihood, instrumental singular), passata (by a seeing one, instrumental singular) and sucigavesina (by one who is looking for purity, instrumental singular). This last compound has an attribute, the adverb niccaj (always, constantly). The conjunction ca (and) connects this sentence to the previous one (DhP 244).


    The story for this verse is identical with the one for the previous verse (DhP 244).
    One who is always trying to do good things, not to offend anyone, has indeed a difficult life. Always thinking about one's action, always mindful and reflecting on one's deeds, thoughts and words - these are just the basic requirements for such a way of life.
    On the other hand, if we just do not care about others, if we do not think about how our actions can cause suffering and pain, then the life is very easy.
    If we want to walk on the Buddha's path we should try our best to lead the difficult kind of life. After all, reflection and mindfulness are a part of meditation.

Sentence pronunciation:

Sentence pronunciation

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