Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
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paravajjanupassissa niccaj ujjhanasabbino

asava tassa vaddhanti ara so asavakkhaya

(DhP 253)

Sentence Translation:

Who finds faults with others and is always irritable,
his taints only grow. He is far away from dissolution of taints.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

para+vajja+anupassissa niccaj ujjhana+sabbino
|           |            |               |           |            |
Adj.  N.n.     Adj.m.       Adv.     N.n.    Adj.m.
|______|       Gen.Sg.         |           |      Gen.Sg.
     |__________|               |           |_______|
               |                        |__________|

List of Abbreviations

 asava           tassa     vaddhanti  ara      so     asavakkhaya
     |                  |               |           |         |               |
  N.m.         Pron.m.  Adv. Pron.m.      N.m.
Nom.Pl.      Gen.Sg.   3.Pl.pres.    |    Nom.Sg.    Abl.Sg.
___|__________|               |           |_____|________|
     |_____|                        |                     |____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

paravajjanupassissa: paravajjanupassin-, Adj,: one who finds faults with others. It is a compound of:
    para-, Adj.: different, other.
    vajja-, N.n.: fault, what should be avoided.
    anupassin-, N.m.: contemplating, viewing, observing. Derived from the verb pass-, to see with the prefix anu-, on, at, down on. The word anupassana- N.f.: observation, contemplation. The suffix -in is so called possessive suffix (thus literally "having contemplation").
Euphonic combination: paravajja- + anupassin- = paravajjanupassin-.
Gen.Sg.m. = paravajjanupassissa.

niccaj, Adv.: perpetually, constantly.

ujjhanasabbino: ujjhanasabbin-, Adj.: irritable. It is a compound of:
    ujjhana-, N.n.: taking offence, complaining.
    sabbin-, Adj.: conscious, aware, perceiving. It is derived from the word sabba-, N.f.: perception by adding the possessive suffix -in.
Gen.Sg.m. = ujjhanasabbino.

List of Abbreviations

asava: asava- N.m.: taint, corruption. Nom.Pl. = asava.

tassa: tad-, Pron.: that. Gen.Sg.m. = tassa.

vaddhanti, V.: grow, increase. The verb root is vaddh-. = vaddhanti.

ara, Adv.Ind.: far from, remote from.

so: tad-, Pron.n.: it. Nom.Sg.m. = so.

asavakkhaya: asavakkhaya-, N.m.: dissolution of taints. It is a compound of:
    asava-, N.m.: see above.
     khaya-, N.m.: destruction, dissolution, end.
Abl.Sg. = asavakkhaya.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of two syntactically separate sentences. They are:
    1) paravajjanupassissa niccaj ujjhanasabbino asava tassa vaddhanti (who finds faults with others and is always irritable, his taints only grow). The subject is the noun asava (taints, nominative plural). It has an attribute, the pronoun tassa (his, genitive singular). This word has two attributes, the compounds paravajjanupassissa (of the one who finds faults with others, genitive singular) and ujjhanasabbino (of the one who is irritable, genitive singular). The last of them has its own attribute, the adverb niccaj (always). The verb is vaddhanti (grow, 3rd person, plural, active, indicative, present tense).
    2) ara so asavakkhaya (he is far away from dissolution of taints). The subject is the pronoun so (he, nominative singular). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the compound asavakkhaya (from dissolution of taints, ablative singular). It has an attribute, the adverb ara (far away).


    There was a monk named Ujjhana Sabbi. He was always finding faults with others, very easy to get angry and speaking ill of people. When the Buddha found out, he spoke this verse. He also added that sometimes finding faults with others is good. When we see somebody to misbehave and we try to teach him good ways - that is worthy of praise. But if we do it out of spite and malice, then we won't be able to achieve concentration and therefore we get further and further away from the Awakenment.

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