Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

tumhehi kiccam atappaj akkhataro tathagata

patipanna pamokkhanti jhayino marabandhana

(DhP 276)

Sentence Translation:

You must make an effort. The Buddhas are only teachers.
Those, who meditating entered upon this path, will be released from the bond of Mara.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

tumhehi  kiccam   atappaj akkhataro tathagata
|                  |              |             |              |
Pron.      Adj.n.       N.n.       N.m.       N.m.
Ins.Pl.   Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg. Nom.Pl.  Nom.Pl.
|__________|              |             |________|

List of Abbreviations

patipanna pamokkhanti jhayino mara+bandhana
|                        |              |          |            |
Adj.m.          V.pas.     Adj.m.  N.m.      N.n.
Nom.Pl.       3.Pl.fut.  Nom.Pl.     |       Abl.Sg.
|                        |              |           |______|
|_____________|________|                 |
            |           |__________________|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

tumhehi: tvam-, Pron.: you. Ins.Pl. = tumhehi (by you).

kiccam: kicca-, Adj.: must be done, ought to be done. It is a grd. of the verb kar- (to do).
Nom.Sg.n. = kiccam.

atappaj: atappa-, N.n.: exertion, effort. Nom.Sg. = atappaj.

akkhataro: akkhatar-, N.m.: speaker, one who proclaims. It is derived from the verb root kkha- (to say, to tell) with the prefix a- (towards). Nom.Pl. = akkhataro.

tathagata: tathagata-, N.m.: an epithet of the Buddha. Lit. "thus gone", one who has reached Awakenment in this way (that is according to the Dharma). It is a compound of:
    tatha, Adv. thus, in such way.
    gata-, Adj.: gone. It is a p.p. of the verb gam- (to go).
Nom.Pl. = tathagata.

List of Abbreviations

patipanna: patipanna-, Adj.: entered upon, following, gone along. It is a p.p. of the verb root pad- (to go) with the prefix pati- (along, on). Nom.Pl.m. = patipanna.

pamokkhanti, V.: will be released. The verb root is muc- (to be freed), with the strengthening prefix pa-. 3.Pl.pas.fut. = pamokkhanti.

jhayino: jhayin-, Adj.m.: meditating. Derived from the verb jhe- (to meditate). Nom.Pl. = jhayino.

marabandhana: marabandhana-, N.n: the bond of Mara. A compound of:
    mara-, N.m.: Mara, the Evil One, Death.
    bandhana-, N.n,: bond, fetter. Derived from the verb bandh- (to bind, to fasten).
Abl.Sg. = marabandhana.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of three syntactically separate sentences. They are:
    1) tumhehi kiccam atappaj (you must make an effort). The subject is the noun atappaj (effort, nominative singular). The verb is in the gerundive (kiccam, is to be done, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the pronoun tumhehi (by you, instrumental plural).
    2) akkhataro tathagata (the Buddhas are only teachers). The subject is the noun tathagata (the Buddhas, nominative plural). The verb is omitted, implying the verb "to be". The object is the noun akkhataro (teachers, nominative plural).
    3) patipanna pamokkhanti jhayino marabandhana (those, who meditating entered upon this path, will be released from the bond of Mara). The subject is the adjective jhayino (those who are meditating, nominative plural). It has an attribute, the past participle patipanna (having entered [upon the path], nominative plural). The verb is pamokkhanti (will be freed, 3rd person, plural, passive, future). It has an attribute, the compound marabandhana (from the bond of Mara, ablative singular).


    The story for this verse is identical with the one for the previous verses (DhP 273, DhP 274 and DhP 275).
    The Buddha found the way to make an end to suffering. He taught it to us. But we have to make the effort. Nobody will do it for us. We cannot wait for a teacher to pull us from the swamp by some miracle. Only by diligent meditation and daily practice can we be released from the bond of Mara, from the world of suffering.

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Sentence pronunciation

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