Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
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paradukkhupadhanena attano sukham icchati

verasajsaggasajsattho vera so na parimuccati

(DhP 291)

Sentence Translation:

He wants his own happiness by imposing suffering on others.
Full of hatred, he will not be released from hatred.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

para+dukkha+upadhanena attano  sukham    icchati
|             |               |             |            |              |
Adj.    N.n.         N.n.      Pron.m.   N.n.
|_______|          Ins.Sg.    Gen.Sg. Acc.Sg.  3.Sg.pres.
       |____________|             |_______|              |

List of Abbreviations

vera+sajsagga+sajsattho vera         so      na   parimuccati
|             |                |            |             |         |           |
N.n.    N.m.        Adj.m.    N.n.     Pron.m. neg.
|_______|           Nom.Sg. Abl.Sg.  Nom.Sg.  |     3.Sg.pres.
      |_____________|             |             |        |______|
                  |______________|_______|              |
                               |            |_______________|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

paradukkhupadhanena: paradukkhupadhana-, N.n.: imposing suffering on others. It is a compound of:
    para-, Adj.: different, other.
    dukkha-, N.n.: suffering.
    upadhana-, N.n.: imposing, giving. It is derived from the verb root dha- (put) with the prefix upa- (near, to).
Euphonic combination: dukkha- + upadhana- = dukkhupadhana-.
Ins.Sg. = paradukkhupadhanena.

attano: attan-, N.m./Pron.: self, oneself. Gen.Sg. = attano.

sukham: sukha-, N.n.: happiness. Acc.Sg. = sukham.

icchati, V.: wants. The verb root is is-. = icchati.

List of Abbreviations

verasajsaggasajsattho: verasajsaggasajsattha-, Adj.: full of hatred. Lit. "joined with contact with hatred". It is a compound of:
    vera-, N.n.: hatred, enmity.
    sajsagga-, N.m.: contact, connection, association. It is derived from the verb root sajj- (to acquire) with the prefix sam- (together).
    sajsattha-, Adj.: mixed with, associating with, joined. It is a p.p. of the verb root sajj- with the prefix sam- (see under sajsagga-).
Nom.Sg.m. = verasajsaggasajsattho.

vera: vera-, N.n.: hatred, enmity. Abl.Sg. = vera.

so: tad-, Pron.n.: it. Nom.Sg.m. = so.

na, neg.: not.

parimuccati, V.: is released, is freed, escapes. The verb root is muc- (to be freed) with the prefix pari- (all around). = parimuccati.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of two syntactically separate sentences. They are:
    1) paradukkhupadhanena attano sukham icchati (he wants his own happiness by imposing suffering on others). The subject is omitted; the verb implies the third person singular pronoun. The verb is icchati (wants, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). It has an attribute, the compound paradukkhupadhanena (by imposing suffering on others, instrumental singular). The object is the noun sukham (happiness, accusative singular). It has an attribute, the pronoun attano (one's own, genitive singular).
    2) verasajsaggasajsattho vera so na parimuccati (full of hatred, he will not be released from hatred). The subject is the pronoun so (he, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the compound verasajsaggasajsattho (full of hatred, nominative singular). The verb is parimuccati (is released, 3rd person, singular, passive, indicative, present tense). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). The object is the noun vera (from hatred, ablative singular).


    Once there lived a woman who kept a hen. The hen would lay one egg every day and the woman would break it and eat it. The hen was very angry because of that and started hating the woman. As a result of his, they were always reborn together causing pain to each other.
    During the time of the Buddha, one of them was born as a woman and the other one as an ogress. Once the woman with her husband and son were on their way home from a visit to relatives. Her husband went to take a bath and she rested with her son by the roadside. At that moment, the ogress appeared and attacked her. The woman took her son and ran to the monastery for refuge.
    There the Buddha told them the whole story and asked them to stop hating each other, for otherwise they would never be free. He told them this verse to make them understand his meaning. Both of them realized the futility of hatred and agreed not to harm each other from then on.

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