Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

ekasanaj ekaseyyaj eko caram atandito

eko damayam attanaj vanante ramito siya

(DhP 305)

Sentence Translation:

Sitting alone, sleeping in solitude, wandering alone and active,
alone subduing oneself - such a one would take delight in living in forests.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

eka+asanaj    eka+seyyaj      eko      caram    atandito
|            |           |         |              |            |              |
Num. Adj.m. Num.  Adj.m.   Num.m.  Adj.m.    Adj.m.
|       Nom.Sg.    |    Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.
|_______|           |_____|              |            |________|
       |                      |                   |___________|

List of Abbreviations

eko       damayam attanaj vana+ante    ramito        siya
|                  |              |         |        |           |               |
Num.m.   Adj.m.    N.m.   N.n.  N.n.     Adj.m.     V.act.
Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg. Acc.Sg.    |   Loc.Sg. Nom.Sg. 3.Sg.opt.
|                  |________|         |____|            |________|
|______________|                     |_____________|
_______|                                               |

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

ekasanaj: ekasana-, Adj.: sitting alone. It is a compound of:
    eka-, Num.: one.
   asana-, N.n.: seat, chair.
Euphonic combination: eka- + asana- = ekasana-.
Acc.Sg. = ekasanaj. Although the accusative form is used here, it is grammatically incorrect. A nominative case should be used here: ekasano.

ekaseyyaj: ekaseyya-, Adj.: sleeping alone. It is a compound of:
    eka-, Num.: one.
    seyya-, N.f.: bed, couch.
Acc.Sg. = ekaseyyaj. See above for the note. The form here should be ekaseyyo.

List of Abbreviations

eko: eka-, Num.: one. As an Adj.: alone. Nom.Sg.m. = eko.

caram: carant-, Adj.: wandering, roaming. It is an of the verb root car- (to move, to wander about). Nom.Sg. = caram.

atandito: atandita-, Adj.: active, keen, sedulous. It is the word tandita-, Adj.: lazy, passive negated by the negative prefix a-. Nom.Sg.m. = atandito.

eko: see above.

damayam: damayant-, Adj.: taming, subduing, mastering. It is an of the verb root dam- (to tame). Nom.Sg.m. = damayam.

List of Abbreviations

attanaj: attan-, N.m./Pron.: self. Acc.Sg. = attanaj.

vanante: vananta-, N.n.: the border of the forest, the fringes of the forest. It is a compound of:
    vana-, N.n.: forest.
    anta-, N.n.: end.
Euphonic combination: vana- + anta- = vananta-.
Loc.Sg. = vanante.

ramito: enjoying, taking delight. It is a p.p. of the verb root ram- (to enjoy, to delight in).
Nom.Sg.m. = ramito.

siya, V.: would be. The verb root is as-. 3.Sg.act.opt. = siya.

List of Abbreviations

    There are four subjects in this sentence. They are:
    1) ekasanaj (sitting alone, accusative singular).
    2) ekaseyyaj (sleeping in solitude, accusative singular).
    3) eko caram atandito (wandering alone and active). The subject here is the numeral eko (one, alone, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the adjective atandito (active, nominative singular). The verb is in the active present participle, caram (wandering, nominative singular).
    4) eko damayam attanaj (alone subduing oneself). The subject is the numeral eko (one, alone, nominative singular). The verb is in the active present participle, damayam (subduing, nominative singular). The object is the noun/pronoun attanaj (oneself, accusative singular).
    The verb is siya (should be, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). It has two attributes, the past participle ramito (delighted, enjoying, nominative singular) and the noun vanante (at the edge of the forest, locative singular).


    Venerable Ekavihari used to live alone, eat alone and meditating in solitude. He did not like to keep company of other monks. Some monks did not understand why he did so and reported the matter to the Buddha. The Buddha praised Ekavihari and spoke this verse about how good it is for a monk to concentrate on meditation in seclusion.

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