Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

appamādarato bhikkhu pamāde bhayadassi vā

abhabbo parihānāya nibbānasseva santike

(DhP 32)

Sentence Translation:

The monk, who is devoted to conscientiousness and who is fearful of negligence,
unable to regress, he is just in the vicinity of the Nirvana.

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

a+ppamāda+rato     bhikkhu   pamāde  bhaya+dassi        vā
|         |           |             |              |           |          |            |

neg. N.m.  Adj.m.      N.m.       N.m.    N.n.   Adj.m.   conj.

|_____|     Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.   |      Nom.Sg.    |

    |_________|             |              |           |______|            |

            |____________|              |_________|                  |


List of Abbreviations

a + bhabbo    parihānāya  nibbānassa eva   santike
|          |                |                |            |          |

neg.  Adj.m.      N.n.           N.n.     part.    N.n.

|      Nom.Sg.  Dat.Sg.       Gen.Sg.     |     Loc.Sg.

|_____|                 |                |______|______|

     |____________|                       |

_________|                                  |



Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

appamādarato: appamādarata-, Adj.:
    appamāda-, N.m.: conscientiousness, non-negligence. A negated (by the negative

    prefix a-) word pamāda-, N.m.: negligence. Doubled p is due to the euphonic

    combination (a + pamāda = appamāda).

    rata-, Adj.: devoted. It is a p.p. of the verb ram- (to delight in, to be devoted to).

Nom.Sg. = appamādarato.

bhikkhu: bhikkhu-, N.m.: a (Buddhist) monk. Nom.Sg. = bhikkhu.

pamāde: pamāda-, N.m.: negligence. Loc.Sg. = pamāde.

List of Abbreviations

bhayadassi: bhayadassin-, N.m.: seeing an object of fear. A compound of:
    bhaya-, N.n.: fear, fright.

    dassin-, Adj.: seeing, finding, realizing. Derived from the verb dis- (to see).

Nom.Sg. = bhayadassī . The form bhayadassi is due to the metrical requirements.

, conj.: or.

abhabbo: abhabba-, Adj.: impossible to, unable of. Negated (by the negative prefix a-) word bhabba-, Adj.: able, capable. It is a grd. of the verb root bhū- (to be, to exist). Nom.Sg.m. = abhabbo.

List of Abbreviations

parihānāya: parihāna-, N.n.: decrease, decay, regress. Derived from the verb root hā- (to leave, to abandon) with the prefix pari- (all around, completely). Dat.Sg. = parihānāya.

nibbānassa: nibbāna-, N.n.: Nirvana, the goal of Buddhism, cessation of greed, hatred and delusion. Gen.Sg. = nibbānassa.

eva, part.: just.

santike: santika-, N.n.: presence, vicinity. Loc.Sg. = santike.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the word bhikkhu (monk, nominative singular) with three attributes, appamādarato (devoted to conscientiousness, nominative singular) and bhayadassi (fearful, nominative singular) with its own attribute pamāde (in negligence, locative singular). They are connected by the conjuction (or). The third attribute is abhabbo (unable, nominative singular) with its own attribute parihānāya (of regress, dative singular). The verb here is omitted, implying the verb "to be".
    The attribute to this verb is the word santike (in the vicinity, locative singular) with its attribute nibbānassa (of the Nirvana, genitive singular). The particle eva (just) serves as strengthening particle.


    Nigamavātissa was born and grew up in a small market town near Sāvatthi. He became a monk and lived a simple life. For his alms food he went to the village where his relatives lived and he kept away from all the big occasions. Even when big benefactors like Anāthapiṇḍika and king Pasenadi of Kosala gave monks alms on a grand scale, he did not attend. Some monks started to say, that he keeps only to his relatives and does not care about things.
    The Buddha asked him about this. He replied that he goes to his village only for alms food, takes only as much as is enough, does not care if it is tasty or not. The Buddha praised him and told the other monks that they should all behave in this way. He also related the story of the king of parrots:

    He lived in a grove of fig trees on the banks of Ganga with many subjects. When all the fruits were eaten, everybody left, except for the king, who was satisfied with little. Once Sakka, the king of gods, wanted to test him and his resolve. He assumed the form of a goose and asked him why doesn't he move away. The king said he can not leave out of the gratitude towards the tree. If he can find enough food to get by, he wouldn't go. It would be ungrateful. Sakka was impressed and revealed himself. Then he poured the Ganga water over the withered tree and it was suddenly green and full of fruit.

    Then the Buddha said, that the king of parrots was himself in one of his previous existences and Sakka was Anuruddha, one of the Buddha's foremost disciples. He then uttered this verse (DhP 32). At the end of the discourse, Nigamavātissa became an arahant.

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