Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

asajsatthaj gahatthehi anagarehi cubhayaj

anokasarim appicchaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj

(DhP 404)

Sentence Translation:

Who is not associating neither with householders nor with monks,
wandering in houselessness, wanting little - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

asajsatthaj gahatthehi anagarehi ca  ubhayaj
|                         |                |         |         |
Adj.m.            N.m.          N.m.  conj.   Adv.
Acc.Sg.          Ins.Pl.        Ins.Pl.    |         |
|                         |_________|         |_____|
|                                  |____________|

List of Abbreviations

anoka+sarim  appa+icchaj    tam       ahaj       brumi   brahmanaj
|             |         |          |            |             |               |             |
N.n.  Adj.m.  Adj.   Adj.m.  Pron.m.   Pron.     N.m.
|       Acc.Sg.    |      Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres.  Acc.Sg.
|_______|         |______|            |             |               |             |
____|____________|_________|             |               |              |
                                                            |       |____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

asajsatthaj: asajsattha-, Adj.: not associating, not given to society. It is the p.p. of the verb root saj- (to join) with the prefix saj- (together) and negated by the negative prefix a-.
Acc.Sg.m. = asajsatthaj.

gahatthehi: gahattha-, N.m.: householder. It is derived from the word gaha-, N.m.: house with the suffix -ttha- (this is derived from the verb root tha-, to stand). Ins.Pl. = gahatthehi.

anagarehi: anagara-, N.m.: monk, homeless wanderer. It is derived from the word agara-, N.n.: home, abode, negated by the negative prefix an-. Ins.Pl. = anagarehi.

ca, conj.: and.

List of Abbreviations

ubhayaj: ubhaya-, Adj.: both. Acc.Sg.m. = ubhayaj. Here as an Adv.
Euphonic combination: ca + ubhayaj = cubhayaj.

anokasarim: anokasarin-, Adj.: living in houseless state, free from worldly attachments. It is a compound of:
    anoka-, N.n.: houselessness, homelessness. It is the word oka-, N.n.: home, house, abode, shelter negated by the negative prefix an-.
    sarin-, Adj.: wandering, following. It is derived from the verb root sar- (to go).
Acc.Sg.m. = anokasarim.

List of Abbreviations

appicchaj: appiccha-, Adj.: wanting little. It is a compound of:
    appa-, Adj.: few, little.
    iccha-, Adj.: wanting, desiring. It is derived from the verb root is- (to want).
Euphonic combination: appa- + iccha- = appiccha-.
Acc.Sg.m. = appicchaj.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaj, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaj.

brumi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. = brumi.

brahmanaj: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmanaj.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject is the pronoun ahaj (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmanaj (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has four attributes:
    1) the adjective asajsatthaj (not associating, accusative singular) with its two attributes, the nouns gahatthehi (with householders, instrumental plural) and anagarehi (with monks, instrumental plural). They are connected by the conjunction ca (and) and the adverb ubhayaj (both).
    2) the compound anokasarim (wandering in houselessness, accusative singular).
    3) the compound appicchaj (wanting little, accusative singular).
    4) the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular).


    A monk named Tissa lived in a cave practicing meditation. In the same cave there lived a spirit who found it difficult to live near somebody of such pure virtue, yet didn't dare to ask Tissa directly to leave.
    The spirit went to the nearby village and possessed a young boy. He then told the boy's mother that only after the boy is washed with water left over from washing Tissa's feet, would he leave the boy alone. The boy's mother asked Tissa for help and he agreed.
    The spirit then accused Tissa of exorcism (the practice of which is an offence for Buddhist monks) and on account of this asked him to leave. Tissa reflected on his acts and realized that he did not practice exorcism and had no offence. That gave him assurance and happiness and he attained the Arahantship in that very spot.
    Tissa continued to dwell in the cave for the whole Rain Retreat and when it was over, he went to see the Buddha. He narrated his encounter with the spirit and other monks asked the Buddha if Tissa was really an Arahant. The Buddha replied with this verse, confirming Tissa's attainment.

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