Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

aviruddhaj viruddhesu attadandesu nibbutaj

sadanesu anadanaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj

(DhP 406)

Sentence Translation:

One who is unhindered amongst the obstructed, one who is free amongst violent,
one who does not cling to anything amongst those who do - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

aviruddhaj viruddhesu atta+dandesu nibbutaj
|                         |           |          |            |
Adj.m.          Adj.m.    Adj.  Adj.m.   Adj.m.
Acc.Sg.         Loc.Pl.      |     Loc.Pl.  Acc.Sg.
|______________|          |______|            |
             |                            |__________|

List of Abbreviations

sadanesu anadanaj   tam      ahaj       brumi     brahmanaj
|                      |           |             |               |                |
Adj.m.       Adj.m.   Pron.m.   Pron.       N.m.
Loc.Pl.      Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg.  1.Sg.pres.   Acc.Sg.
|____________|            |             |               |                |
______|_____________|             |               |                |
                                                 |              |_____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

aviruddhaj: aviruddha-, Adj.: unobstructed, unhindered, free. It is the word viruddha- (see below) with the negative prefix a-. Acc.Sg.m. = aviruddhaj.

viruddhesu: viruddha-, Adj.: hindered, obstructed, disturbed. It is a p.p. of the verb root rudh- (to obstruct) with the prefix vi- (denoting separation). Loc.Pl.m. = viruddhesu.

attadandesu: attadanda-, Adj.: who has taken a stick in his hand, a violent person. It is a compound of:
    atta-, Adj.: taken up. It is a p.p. of the verb root da- (to give) with the prefix a- (towards). The whole verb has the meaning "take".
    danda-, N.m.: stick, club, punishment.
Loc.Pl.m. = attadandesu.

nibbutaj: nibbuta-, Adj.: emancipated, free, reached the Nirvana. It is a p.p. of the verb root va- (to blow) with the prefix ni- (off, out). Acc.Sg. = nibbutaj.

List of Abbreviations

sadanesu: sadana-, Adj.: clinging. It is the word adana-, N.n.: attachment, clinging (this word is derived from the verb da-, to give with the prefix a-, towards; the meaning of the verb is "to take, to grasp") with the prefix sa- (with). Loc.Pl.m. = sadanesu.

anadanaj: anadana-, Adj.: free from clinging. It is the word adana- (see above) negated by the negative prefix an-. Acc.Sg.m. = anadanaj.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaj, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaj.

brumi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. = brumi.

brahmanaj: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmanaj.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject is the pronoun ahaj (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmanaj (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has four attributes:
    1) aviruddhaj (unhindered, accusative singular). It has an attribute, the adjective viruddhesu (amongst the obstructed, locative plural).
    2) nibbutaj (free, accusative singular). It has an attribute, the adjective attadandesu (amongst violent, locative plural).
    3) anadanaj (not clinging, accusative singular). It has an attribute, the adjective sadanesu (amongst clinging, locative plural).
    4) the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular).


    A Brahmin couple once prepared to offer food to the Buddhist monks. The wife sent her husband to the monastery to invite some senior monks. But the Buddha sent four novices (who were also Arahants). The wife was unhappy, did not offer the novices neither seats nor food and sent her husband back. He met Venerable Sariputta and brought him to their house. When Sariputta saw the situation, he returned to the monastery. The same thing happened next time, when the Brahmin brought Venerable Moggallana with him.
    Sakka, the king of the gods, then took a form of an old Brahmin and came to the house. Husband and wife paid their respects to him and offered him the seat of honor. Sakka refused and paid respects to the four novices. Then he revealed that he was Sakka and the novices were actually Arahants. The Brahmin couple fell very ashamed and immediately served the novices food.
    When the Buddha heard about this, he spoke this verse, saying that Arahants are not angry toward those, who are hostile.

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