Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

yassalaya na vijjanti abbaya akathavkathi

amatogadham anuppattaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj

(DhP 411)

Sentence Translation:

Who is without attachments, has realized the truth and is free from doubts,
merging into the Nirvana, has attained the goal - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

yassa            alaya     na    vijjanti  abbaya akathavkathi
|                       |          |          |            |             |
Rel.Pron.m.   N.m.    neg. V.ger.     Adj.m.
Gen.Sg.       Nom.Pl.    |    3.Pl.pres.    |        Nom.Sg.
|                       |           |_____|            |             |
|                       |_________|                |             |
|__________________|                        |             |

List of Abbreviations

amata+ogadham anuppattaj  tam      ahaj       brumi brahmanaj
|                |               |              |            |              |             |
N.n.      Adj.m.     Adj.m.    Pron.m.   Pron.    N.m.
|           Acc.Sg.    Acc.Sg.    Acc.Sg. Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres. Acc.Sg.
|_________|               |              |            |              |             |
        |_____________|________|            |              |             |
                                                            |              |____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

yassa: yat-, Rel.Pron.: that, which. Gen.Sg.m. = yassa (whose).

alaya: alaya-, N.m.: attachment, clinging. Nom.Pl. = alaya.
Euphonic combination: yassa + alaya = yassalaya.

na, neg.: not.

vijjanti, V.: exist, are found. The verb root is vid- (to find). = vijjanti.

abbaya, V.ger: having found, having realized, having known. The verb root is ba- (to know) with the prefix a- (towards).

akathavkathi: akathavkathin-, Adj.: without doubts. It is the word kathavkathin- (having doubts, a compound of: kathaj, Adv.: how? and katha, Adv.: how?, with the possessive suffix -in) negated by the negative prefix a-. Nom.Sg.m. = akathavkathi.

List of Abbreviations

amatogadham: amatogadha-, Adj.: merging into Deathlessness (Nirvana).
    amata-, N.n.: deathlessness. A negated (by the negative prefix a-) word mata-, Adj.: dead. A p.p. of mar- (to die).
    ogadha-, Adj.: immersed, merging into. It is a p.p. of the verb root gah- (plunge) with the prefix ava-/o- (down, into).
Euphonic combination: amata- + ogadha- = amatogadha-.
Acc.Sg.m. = amatogadham.

anuppattaj: anuppatta-, Adj.: reached, attained. It is a p.p. of the verb root ap- (to get, to obtain) with the prefixes anu- (at, to) and pa- (strengthening). Acc.Sg.m. = anuppattaj.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaj, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaj.

brumi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. = brumi.

brahmanaj: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmanaj.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of two related sentences. They are:
    1) yassalaya na vijjanti abbaya akathavkathi (who is without attachments, has realized the truth and is free from doubts). The subject is the noun alaya (attachments, nominative plural). The verb is vijjanti (are found, 3rd person, plural, passive, indicative, present tense). It is negated by the negative particle na (not). The sentence is introduced by the relative pronoun yassa (whose, genitive singular), which connects it to the following sentence. There are two clauses, abbaya (having understood, gerund) and akathavkathi (free from doubts, nominative singular).
    2) amatogadham anuppattaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj (merging into the Nirvana, has attained the goal - him do I call a Brahmin). The subject is the pronoun ahaj (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmanaj (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has three attributes, the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular), the compound amatogadham (merging into the Nirvana, accusative singular) and the adjective anuppattaj (attained the goal, accusative singular).


    On one occasion, a similar thing that happened to Venerable Sariputta in the previous verse (see the commentary for gatha 410) happened to Venerable Moggallana. The Buddha then spoke this verse, saying that Moggallana was free of defilements.

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Sentence pronunciation

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