Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

hitva ratij ca aratij ca sitibhutaj nirupadhij

sabbalokabhibhuj viraj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj

(DhP 418)

Sentence Translation:

Who has renounced liking and dislike, tranquil and free from attachments,
The hero, who has conquered the whole world - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

hitva    ratij     ca    aratij   ca     siti+bhutaj nirupadhij
|              |          |         |         |        |         |              |
V.ger.   N.f.    conj.   N.f.    conj. Adj.  Adj.m.     Adj.m.
|         Acc.Sg.    |    Acc.Sg.    |        |   Acc.Sg.     Acc.Sg.
|              |_____|          |_____|        |_____|              |
|                   |___________|                  |                  |
|________________|                             |                  |

List of Abbreviations

sabba+loka+abhibhuj viraj     tam      ahaj       brumi  brahmanaj
|            |            |            |           |             |              |             |
Adj.   N.m.   Adj.m.     N.m.   Pron.m.   Pron.    N.m.
|_______|      Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg. Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres. Acc.Sg.
       |__________|            |           |             |              |             |
_________|____________|           |             |              |             |
                                                               |     |_____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

hitva, V.ger.: having renounced, having left behind. It is a ger. of the verb ha- (to abandon, to leave).

ratij: rati-, N.f.: liking, joy, pleasure. Acc.Sg. = ratij.

ca, conj.: and.

aratij: arati-, N.f.: dislike, aversion. It is the word rati-, N.f. (see above) negated by the negative particle a-. Acc.Sg. = aratij.

sitibhutaj: sitibhuta-, Adj.: tranquil, calm. It is a compound of:
    sita-, Adj.: cool, cold. The compound form: siti-.
    bhuta-, Adj.: being, having become. It is a p.p. of the verb bhu- (to be).
    Acc.Sg.m. = sitibhutaj.

nirupadhij: nirupadhi-, Adj.: free from attachments. It is the word upadhi-, N.m. (attachment, clinging) with the prefix nir- (without). The verse form: nirupadhi-. Acc.Sg.m. = nirupadhij.

List of Abbreviations

sabbalokabhibhuj: sabbalokabhibhu-, Adj.: who has conquered the whole world. It is a compound of:
    sabba-, Adj.: all.
    loka-, N.m.: world.
    abhibhu-, Adj.: overcoming, conquering. It is derived from the verb root bhu- (to be) with the prefix abhi- (over).
Acc.Sg.m. = sabbalokabhibhuj.

viraj: vira-, N.m.: hero. Acc.Sg. = viraj.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaj, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaj.

brumi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. = brumi.

brahmanaj: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmanaj.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the pronoun ahaj (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmanaj (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has several attributes: the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular), the compound sabbalokabhibhuj (who has conquered the whole world, accusative singular), the noun viraj (hero, accusative singular), the adjectives sitibhutaj (tranquil, accusative singular) and nirupadhij (free from attachments, accusative singular). There is also a dependent clause, hitva ratij ca aratij ca (who has renounced liking and dislike). The verb is in gerund, hitva (having renounced). There are two objects, ratij (liking, accusative singular) and aratij (dislike, accusative singular). They are connected by two conjunctions ca (and).


    The story for this verse as identical to the story for the previous one. See DhP 417.

Sentence pronunciation:

Sentence pronunciation

Word pronunciation: