Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

diso disaṃ yaṃ taṃ kayirā verī vā pana verinaṃ

micchāpaṇihitaṃ cittaṃ pāpiyo naṃ tato kare

(DhP 42)

Sentence Translation:

Whatever an enemy might do to an enemy, or a hater to a hated one,
wrongly directed mind can do one even worse (evil).

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

diso          disaṃ      yaṃ        taṃ     kayirā       verī    vā  pana verinaṃ
|                   |             |             |            |             |         |       |         |

N.m.         N.m.    Rel.Pron.  Pron.    V.act.      N.m.  conj. part.  N.m.

Nom.Sg. Nom.Sg.  Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg. 3.Sg.opt. Nom.Sg.  |       |    Acc.Sg.

|___________|            |_______|            |              |_____|____|_____|

         |_________________|                  |                  |___|



List of Abbreviations

micchā+paṇihitaṃ    cittaṃ pāpiyo   naṃ   tato     kare
|                  |               |          |          |         |          |

Adv.        Adj.n.       N.n.     Adj.   Pron.  Adv.   V.act.

|             Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.    |    Acc.Sg.    |     3.Sg.opt.

|__________|               |          |______|_____|          |

        |______________|                 |    |___________|

                     |                              |________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

diso: disa-, N.m.: enemy. Nom.Sg. = diso.

disaṃ: diso-, N.m.: see above. Acc.Sg. = disaṃ.

yaṃ: yad-, Rel.Pron.: [that,] what. Acc.Sg.m.n. = yaṃ.

taṃ: tad-, Pron.: that. Acc.Sg.m.n. = taṃ. yaṃ + taṃ = Adv., whatever.

kayirā, V.: would do. The verb root kar- (to do). 3.Sg.act.opt. = kayirā.

verī: verin-, N.m.: "hater", somebody bearing hostility. Derived (by adding the possessive suffix -in) from the word vera-, N.n.: hatred. Nom.Sg. = verī.

List of Abbreviations

, conj.: or.

pana, part.: indeed.

verinaṃ: verin-, N.m.: see above. Acc.Sg. = verinaṃ.

micchāpaṇihitaṃ: micchāpaṇihita-, Adj.: wrongly directed. A compound of:
    micchā, Adv.: wrongly, badly.

    paṇihita-, Adj.: directed, applied. It is a p.p. of the verb dhā- (to put) with

    prefixes pa- (strengthening) and ni- (down).

Nom.Sg.n. = micchāpaṇihitaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

cittaṃ: citta-, N.n.: mind. Acc.Sg. = cittaṃ.

pāpiyo, Adj.Ind.: worse. It is a comparative of the word pāpa-, Adj.: bad.

naṃ: ena-, Pron.: he. Acc.Sg. = enaṃ or naṃ.

tato, Adv.: than that.

kare, V.: would do. The verb root kar- (to do). 3.Sg.act.opt. = kare. Note, that for 3.Sg.act.opt. both kayirā (see above) and kare are possible.

List of Abbreviations

    The main sentence is in the second line. Here, the subject of the sentence is the word
cittaṃ (mind, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the compound micchāpaṇihitaṃ (wrongly directed, nominative singular). The verb is kare (can do, 3rd person, singular, active, optative) with an attribute, the indeclinable adverb pāpiyo (worse). The object is naṃ (him, accusative singular). The adverb tato (than that) connects the main sentence to the relative clause in the first line.

    The relative clause consists of two parts:

1) diso disaṃ yaṃ taṃ kayirā (whatever an enemy might do to an enemy). Here, the subject is the word diso (enemy, nominative singular) and the verb kayirā (would do, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). The object is the noun disaṃ (to the enemy, accusative singular). The phrase yaṃ - taṃ (what - that) we should rather take as one adverbial phrase (whatever).

2) verī vā pana verinaṃ (or a hater to a hater). The subject is the noun verī (hater, nominative singular) and the object verinaṃ (to a hater, accusative singular). The verb is omitted, kayirā (would do) from the previous sentence is implied. The particle pana (indeed) is here only for metrical purposes. The conjunction (or) connects these two parts of the relative clause.


    In the country of Kosala there once lived a herdsman named Nanda. He looked after the cows of the famous benefactor Anāthapiṇḍika. Sometimes he would go to Anāthapiṇḍika's house and listen to the Buddha's discourses. Once Nanda asked the Buddha to come to his house for alms food. The Buddha replied that he would come, but the time is not yet right and Nanda should wait.
    After some time the Buddha was traveling and went off his usual route to see Nanda, because he knew that the time for him to do so was ripe. Nanda received him, served the Buddha and monks milk and milk products and all kinds of food. This lasted for seven days. On the last day after hearing the Buddha's discourse, Nanda attained the first stage of awakenment.

    When the Buddha was leaving, Nanda carried his bowl for him some distance and then turned back home. Suddenly a hunter, his old enemy, shot him. The monks saw Nanda laying dead on the road. They told the Buddha that because of them, because they came to his house and he was accompanying them, Nanda died. But the Buddha said that there was no escape from death for him. And he told the monks this verse (DhP 42).

Sentence pronunciation:

Sentence pronunciation

Word pronunciation: