Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

usabhaj pavaraj viraj mahesij vijitavinaj

anejaj nhatakaj buddhaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj

(DhP 422)

Sentence Translation:

Who is strong, noble, a hero, a great seer, victorious,
free from craving, his task finished and is awakened - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

usabhaj pavaraj viraj maha+isij vijitavinaj
|                   |           |         |        |           |
N.m.       Adj.m.    N.m.  Adj.  N.m.   Adj.m.
Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.   |   Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.
|                   |           |         |_____|          |

List of Abbreviations

anejaj nhatakaj buddhaj  tam         ahaj     brumi   brahmanaj
|                  |              |           |               |             |              |
Adj.m    Adj.m.      Adj.m.  Pron.m.    Pron.    N.m.
Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg.     Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres. Acc.Sg.
|__________|________|           |               |             |              |
______|___________________|               |             |              |
                                                             |     |____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

usabhaj: usabha-, N.m.: bull (as a symbol of strength). Acc.Sg. = usabhaj.

pavaraj: pavara-, Adj.: excellent, noble. Acc.Sg.m. = pavaraj.

viraj: vira-, N.m.: hero. Acc.Sg. = viraj.

mahesij: mahesi-, N.m.: great seer. It is a compound of:
    mahant-, Adj.: big, great. The compound form is maha-.
    isi-, N.m.: seer.
Euphonic combination: maha- + isi- = mahesi-.
Acc.Sg. = mahesij.

vijitavinaj: vijitavin-, Adj.: victorious. It is derived from the verb root ji- (to conquer, to win) with the strengthening prefix vi-. Acc.Sg.m. = vijitavinaj.

anejaj: aneja-, Adj.: free from craving. It is the word eja-, N.f.: craving, negated by the negative prefix -an. Acc.Sg.m. = anejaj.

List of Abbreviations

nhatakaj: nhataka-, N.m.: one who is perfect in the Buddha's teaching. Lit. "one who has bathed." In traditional Vedic religion this means a young man who has finished his studies and taken a ritual bath. In Buddhism the meaning is changed into "who completed his study [of the Dharma]." Acc.Sg. = nhatakaj.

buddhaj: buddha-, Adj.: Awakened, Enlightened. It is a pp. of the verb root budh-, to awaken. Acc.Sg.m.: buddhaj.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaj, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaj.

brumi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. = brumi.

brahmanaj: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmanaj.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the pronoun ahaj (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmanaj (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has nine attributes, the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular), the nouns usabhaj (bull, accusative singular), viraj (hero, accusative singular), mahesij (great seer, accusative singular), nhatakaj (task finished, accusative singular) and the adjectives pavaraj (noble, accusative singular), vijitavinaj (victorious, accusative singular), anejaj (free from craving, accusative singular) and buddhaj (awakened, accusative singular).


    The Kinf Pasenadi and Queen Mallika once gave alms to the Buddha and Community. The offering was done on a big scale. There was an elephant holding an umbrella over each monk. Because there were many monks, one untrained elephant had to be used. He held an umbrella over Venerable Avgulimala. Everybody was afraid that something would happen; however nothing did.
    Later, other monks asked Avgulimala if he was scared at that time. He replied that he was not, since he was an Arahant. The Buddha then confirmed Avgulimala's attainment with this verse.

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Sentence pronunciation

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