Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

tesaṃ sampannasīlānaṃ appamādavihārinaṃ

sammadaññāvimuttānaṃ māro maggaṃ na vindati

(DhP 57)

Sentence Translation:

Mara doesn't find the way of those endowed with virtue,
living in conscientiousness and freed by the right knowledge.

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

tesaṃ sampanna+sīlānaṃ   a+ppamāda+vihārinaṃ
|               |               |         |        |               |

Pron.m. Adj.         N.m.   neg.  N.m.      Adj.m.

Gen.Pl.    |           Gen.Pl.   |____|           Gen.Pl.

|              |_________|            |____________|

|                      |__________________|___________________________I.



List of Abbreviations

sammad+aññā+vimuttānaṃ māro   maggaṃ   na      vindati
|                |              |             |             |          |            |

Adv.       N.f.       Adj.m.     N.m.      N.m.    neg.   V.act.in.

|_________|         Gen.Pl.  Nom.Sg.  Acc.Sg.    |     3.Sg.pres.

       |_____________|             |             |           |______|

I._________|                          |_______|_________|

II.______________________________|        |


Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

tesaṃ: tad-, Pron.: that. Gen.Pl.m. = tesaṃ.

sampannasīlānaṃ: sampannasīla-, N.m.: endowed with virtue, virtuous one.
It is a compound of:

    sampanna-, Adj.: endowed with, possessed of. P.p. of the verb pad- (to go to, to fall to)

    preceded by the prefix sam- (denoting "together" or "completely").

    sīla-, N.n.: virtue.

Gen.Pl. = sampannasīlānaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

appamādavihārinaṃ: appamādavihārin-, Adj.m.: dwelling in conscientiousness.
It is a compound of:

    appamāda-, N.m.: conscientiousness, non-negligence. A negated (by the negative

    prefix a-) word pamāda-, N.m.: negligence. Doubled p is due to the euphonic

    combination (a + pamāda = appamāda).

    vihārin-, Adj.m.: dwelling, living. It is the word vihāra-, N.m.: abode, stay,

    with the possessive suffix -in.

Gen.Pl. = appamādavihārinaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

sammadaññāvimuttānaṃ: sammadaññāvimutta-, Adj.: emancipated, freed or released by the right knowledge. It is a compound of:
    sammadaññā-, N.f.: right knowledge. It is a compound of:

        sammā-, Adv.: rightly, properly, thouroughly.

        aññā-, N.f.: knowledge.

    Euphonic combination: sammā + aññā = sammadaññā.

    vimutta-, Adj.: emancipated, freed, released. It is a p.p. of the verb muc- (to release)

    with the prefix vi- (meaning separation).

Gen.Pl.m. = sammadaññāvimuttānaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

māro: māra-, N.m.: Mara, personified death, the Evil One, devil. Nom.Sg. = māro.

maggaṃ: magga-, N.m.: way, road, path. Acc.Sg. = maggaṃ.

na, neg.: not.

vindati, V.: finds, knows. The verb root is vid- (to know, to find). 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = vindati.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the noun māro (Mara, nominative singular). The verb is vindati (finds or knows, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense), negated by the negative particle na (not). The object is the noun maggaṃ (way, path, accusative singular). The object has four attributes, the main one being the pronoun tesaṃ (their, genitive plural). Three more attributes are all in genitive plural. They are:
1) sampannasīlānaṃ (of virtue-endowed ones, genitive plural),

2) appamādavihārinaṃ (of those, dwelling in conscientiousness).

3) sammadaññāvimuttānaṃ (of those, freed by the right knowledge).


    A monk named Godhika was practicing meditation diligently. But whenever he made some progress in his meditation, he became seriously ill. It impaired effectiveness of his meditation, but he nevertheless continued to practice.
    At the end he decided to strive for the arahantship even if he were to die. So he concentrated on physical pain as his meditation object and cut his throat (this can nor be considered a suicide, because he was very close to arahantship anyway and he already eradicated all cravings). Thus, concentrating on the pain, he attained his goal and then passed away.

    Mara tried to find where Godhika was reborn but he could not find him anywhere. So he went and asked the Buddha about Godhika. The Buddha told him, that Godhika became an arahant and Mara could never be able to find him again.

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