Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

svākhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko

ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī ti


Well proclaimed is the Law by the Blessed One, visible in this world, immediate, invites everybody to come and see, leads to the goal, is to be understood individually be the wise ones.

Sentence structure:

List of Abbreviations

sv    +    ākhāto     bhagavatā     dhammo     sandiṭṭhiko     a+kāliko
|                |                 |                  |                  |              |        |

Pref.     Adj.m.         N.m.           N.m.         Adj.m.       neg.  Adj.m.

|          Nom.Sg.      Ins.Sg.        Nom.Sg.    Nom.Sg.         |    Nom.Sg.

|_________|                 |                  |                  |              |____|

        |______________|                   |                  |__________|_________________I.

                    |                                 |_______________|



List of Abbreviations

ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo     viññūhī     ti
      |               |                |               |                 |           |

Adj.m.      Adj.m.         Adv.       Adj.m.       Adj.m.     part.

Nom.Sg.  Nom.Sg.           |         Nom.Sg.      Ins.Pl.       |

      |               |                |               |_________|            |

      |               |                |_____________|                     |

I.__|________|_________________|                               |


Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

svākhāto: svākhāta-, Adj.: The word ākhāta-, Adj.: proclaimed (p.p. of the verb khā-, to say with the prefix ā-, forth, out to) with the prefix su- (well). The form sv- is due to the euphonic combination. Nom.Sg.m. = svākhāto.

bhagavatā: bhagavant-, N.m.: Blessed One (epithet of the Buddha, possessive form of the word bhaga-, N.m.: good fortune, happiness, prosperity. The word bhaga- is derived from the verb root bhaj-, to share. Thus bhagavant means literally "having good fortune").
Ins.Sg. = bhagavatā: By the Blessed One.

dhammo: dhamma-, N.m.: Buddha's Teaching. The Law. Derived from the verb dha-, to hold. Thus dhamma "holds the world together". Nom.Sg. = dhammo.

List of Abbreviations

sandiṭṭhiko: sandiṭṭhika-, Adj.: visible in this world. Derived from the word sandiṭṭhi-, N.f.: the visible world (futher analysed into diṭṭhi-, N.f. with the prefix saṃ-, together. The word diṭṭhi comes from the verbal root dis-, to see). The suffix -ka transforms the noun into an adjective. Nom.Sg.m. = sandiṭṭhiko.

akāliko: akālika-, Adj.: immediate. The word kālika-, Adj. (gradual, slow, delayed; it is formed from the word kāla-, N.m., time) negated by the negative prefix a-. Nom.Sg.m. = akāliko.

List of Abbreviations

ehipassiko: ehipassika-, Adj.: inviting to come and see. This word has three segments:
    ehi, 2.Sg.act.imp. of the verb i- (to go) with the prefix ā- (towards): come!

    passi, 2.Sg.act.imp. of the verb dis- (to see): see!

    -ka, the denominative suffix, transforming these verbs into an adjective.

The literal meaning therefore is "come-and-see-ish", having the quality of [saying] "come!" and "see!".

Nom.Sg.m. = ehipassiko.

opanayiko: opanayika-, Adj.: leading (to the goal, that is Nirvana). Derived from the verb nī- (to lead) with the prefix upa- (close, towards). Nom.Sg.m. = opanayiko.

List of Abbreviations

paccattaṃ: Adv.: individually. An adverbial form of:
    paccatta-, Adj.: separate, individual. A compound of:

        paṭi-, ind.: against, towards.

        attan-, N.m.: self.

veditabbo: veditabba-, Adj.: should be known. A gerundive of the verb vid-, to know. Nom.Sg.m. = veditabbo.

viññūhi: viññū-, Adj.: wise, learned, intelligent. Derived from the verb ñā- (to know) with the prefix vi- (adding emphasis). Ins.Pl.m. = viññūhi. The form viññūhī, as seen in the verse, is due to euphonic combination viññūhi + iti = viññūhī ti.

ti: (another form of iti) a particle, symbolizing the end of direct speech (in English that is expressed by quotation marks) or the end of a list.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of the sentence is dhammo (The Law). The verb "to be" is omitted, as happens a lot in Pali. The word svākhāto (well proclaimed, nominative singular) actually fulfills the role of a verb, it is an attribute to the missing verb "to be". The word bhagavatā (by the Blessed One, instrumental singular) is an attribute to svākhāto.

    All the other words are attributes to the subject. They are sandiṭṭhiko (visible in this world), akāliko (immediate), ehipassiko (inviting everybody to come and see), opanayiko (leading to the goal) and paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi (to be understood individually be the wise ones). Except for the last one, they are single words (or compounds). They are in nominative singular.

    The last of these attributes is paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi. The main attribute here is veditabbo (to be known). It is therefore also in nominative singular. It is a gerund, which is a verbal derovation meaning that the action should be done. It has an attribute viññūhi (by the wise ones), which is in instrumental plural. The adverb paccattaṃ (individually) forms an attribute to this phrase.

    The particle ti marks the end of the list of attributes.


    In this gāthā, there are enumerated the qualities of the Law (Dhamma), of Buddha's teaching. The Dhamma has been well preached (svākhāto), because it has no flaws, it has been preached fully and without anything missing.

    It is visible in this world (sandiṭṭhiko). We can reap the fruit in this very world, we do not have to wait for the fruits to same future life, or the other world. The results of meditation will come in this very life.

    It is immediate (akāliko). The results of our practice will come to us immediately, we do not have to wait for them to some distant future. As we become to practice the Dhamma, the fruit will come right away. Gradually, step by step we will be able to verify that the Way truly leads to the goal.

    It invites everybody to come and see (ehipassiko). The Dhamma invites us to "come and see". In other words, it invites all people to verify for themselves, that it really leads to the goal, that by practicing it, one can reach the Nirvana. It can not be forced on anybody, nobody can reach the goal just by blind faith. One must "come and see" - and make an effort on the Way to the goal.

    It leads to the goal (opanayiko). By following this teaching, by applying this method, by making an effort on the Way, we can certainly reach the goal and realize the Nirvana.

    It is to be understood individually be the wise ones (paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi). Nobody can reach the Nirvana passively, just by praying or reading books. Everybody must individually practice it and make an effort. Deep insight into the Dhamma is necessary for realizing the goal. That insight will not come by itself, we must strive for it hard. It can not be realized as a result of some help by an external force. Nobody can "enlighten" us, we must do the work for ourselves. Of course, to realize this and to be able to proceed on the path, certain amount of wisdom is required, for a fool will never realize these truths and act accordingly.

Sentence pronunciation:

Sentence pronunciation

Word pronunciation: