The Dharmapada


Comparative Study of Different Versions of the Dharmapada
Research in Chinese Versions of this Ancient Buddhist Text


Miroslav Rozehnal


Completed with Pacific Cultural Foundation Subsidy
Taipei 1998


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What is Dharmapada



Etymology of the word Dharmapada



The structure of the Dharmapada



Human well-being here and now



Insuring a good future rebirth



Highest goal



Pāli Dhammapada



Gāndhārī Dharmapada






Another Sanskrit Version



Chinese Versions



Fa-chü-ching (法句經)



Fa-chu-p'i-yü-ching (法句譬喻經)



Ch'u-yao-ching (出曜經)



Fa-chi-yao-sung-ching (法集要頌經)



Two Unpreserved Versions






Selected Bibliography



The full text of 法句經




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1. Introduction

The detailed and careful research of the earliest period of Buddhist history is of extreme importance to those, who are pursuing Buddhist studies. By the earliest period we usually mean first five hundred years of development of this religion. The very foundations of all branches of Buddhist philosophy were laid in this important epoch. These also called twenty-six early schools then underwent further development both in Indian Cultural Area (today India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Shri Lanka) where Buddhism was established, as well as outside of it: first in Central Asia and in China, later also in Tibet and South East Asia.

One of possible methods of such a research is also comparative study of different versions of various Buddhist texts. By means of critical translation and careful comparison of few such versions we can for example with a high degree of probability ascertain which philosophical school does the particular version belong to, that is if this affiliation is not a matter of certainty. Thus we can also further increase our knowledge about differences and similarities between these schools.

One of many such texts is a collection of short verses with philosophical or ethical contents, known as The Dharmapada. [1] This collection is preserved to us in many different versions, some of them complete, but some unfortunately partially lost.

In this work we will discuss mainly the Chinese versions, mostly the most important of them, 法句經. But for the general introduction of this text we will use the version known as Dhammapada, which is written in Pāli language and is affiliated with the Theravāda school of Buddhism (today the prevailing form of Buddhism in Shri Lanka and South East

1. Dharmapada is a Sanskrit word whose meaning we will discuss shortly. This Sanskrit term is by no means the only name by which this text is known, but I am using it just as a general name for all different versions of this text.



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First part of this work contains the general literary and philosophical description of the Dharmapada (based, as I mentioned above, on the Pāli language version of the text).

Main body of this work is an analysis of all the preserved versions of the Dharmapada. Most attention is paid to four Chinese version, 法句經, 法句譬喻經 , 出曜經 and 法集要頌經. We learn what is known of the history of their creation, we ponder about reasons why they were written, we list names of their chapters.

In appendix there is a full text of 法句經, as was converted into a computer form by the author.

Of course, I am well aware of limitations of this work. But one must bear in mind that this is only a preliminary research into Chinese versions of the Dharmapada. A full translation of 法句經 is planned, its thorough analysis, together with further comparison with already finished translation of Pāli and Gāndhārī [2] language versions of the text. Having this goal in mind, this particular work is of a great importance - it brings together and analyses all the material necessary to start the broader research.

2. The Dharmapada in the gāndhārī language is on of the partially preserved versions of this text. It is discussed later in my work.



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2. What is Dharmapada

Ever since the time, when the Buddhism was "discovered" in the Western countries, the Dharmapada draws to itself the attention of those, who are in some way interested in this religious and philosophical system. It was translated many times into practically all Western languages, countless commentaries were written upon it, it serves as a source of basic information on Buddhist philosophy, often it is also praised for it literary value. [3]

Most of the research was done on the Pāli version of the Dharmapada (called Dhammapada in this language). Main reason is that the Pāli texts were one of the first Buddhist scriptures that Western scientists came across. It is also only the Pāli Dhammapada that was preserved to us completely (that is to say, in Indian languages). Another big reason is that the Buddhist school of Theravāda, with which is this text affiliated, is widespread all around South East Asia as well as in the Western countries.

For this reason, we base this general analysis of the Dharmapada on the Pāli version.


2.1. Etymology of the word Dharmapada

The Sanskrit word compound Dharmapada consists of two words: dharma- and pada-.

The word dharma- is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root dhṛ- (dha- in Pāli, thus dhamma- in this language), whose basic meaning is "to hold". Etymologically is therefore dharma something "which holds".

3. But some of the authors writing about Dharmapada criticize its literary value, saying it is inconsistent metrically as well as in its literary standard. But we must bear in mind, that the Dharmapada is one of the first Indian literary works outside of the corps of Vedic literature. In this light I think the praise of the Dharmapada is well in place.



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In Buddhist context, this word holds several meanings. One is general: here dharma is "a thing" or "a phenomenon". But the most important meaning, which is implied in the name of this text, is very specific. This word is used to denote the Buddha's teaching (in this case, the word is usually written with a capital D, Dharma).

The word pada- (same both in Sanskrit and Pāli) is one of those terms, that can hold many meanings. It can denote: foot, step, footprint, path, place, position, case, part, element, word, verse, sentence - to name only the most important ones.

Thus we can see the reason for the variability of translations of the word Dharmapada. The first part of the compound does not constitute a big problem, but the translator has to decide how to convey the meaning of pada. So we can come across translations like Words of the Teaching, Verses of the Teaching, or even Feet of the Teaching.


2.2 The structure of the Dharmapada

The Dharmapada is a very heterogeneous collection of short verses with ethical or philosophical contents. These verses are sorted into chapters according to a set of different keys. Sometimes they are sorted thematically (thus verses contained in the chapter The Brahman describe the Buddhist ideal of a spiritually perfected person). But sometimes this is only based on occurrence of a particular word in the given verse (for example, the verses in the chapter Thousand have mostly very little in common - except for the fact, that the numeral "thousand" is used in all of them, in various meanings).

Even the religious and philosophical insight is not consistent in this work. We can find philosophically somehow shallow ethical precepts as well as extremely deep reflections on the nature of the world.

Verses of the Dharmapada can roughly be grouped into three levels (which correspond with the three levels of Buddhism in general):



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a) Human well-being here and now

This basic level concerns itself with the immediate human happiness and contentment, with good social relations, with benefit of the whole society. This level is de facto identical with similar levels of other world religions. [4] We are urged to give up unwholesome deeds, be they done by body, speech or mind, to cleanse our minds, to perform only good actions, to practice self-control. Great role is played by the law of karma, [5] which is present in the background of all these verses.

b) Insuring a good future rebirth

This level is actually an extension of the previous one. As a result of good deeds (in other words, good karma) a good rebirth can be expected, be it in various heavenly worlds or again as a human being. [6] Wrong deeds then of course lead to lower planes, to hells or to the animal realm. Very important on this level is understanding of underlying impermanence of all these states. The attainment of a favorable rebirth is not the goal of Buddhism and attachment to such things can even be a hindrance to further progress. But if somebody is not able to achieve the goal in this very life, good future life is very important, for it is in the future that such a person will strive to attain the highest.

4. It is only different probably in its absence from theistic implications, which are to some degree inherent in other religions. In Buddhism it is based on two immediately and directly verifiable foundations: one's own happiness and peace and prosperity of other members of the society.

5. In Sanskrit karma means "deed" (from the verbal root kṛ-, to do). The basic idea is that there is a causal relation between one's deeds and one's future.

6. A rebirth as a human being is unique, because only as a human can a living being realize the highest goal of Buddhism - emancipation from continuous wheel of life and death. Beings in higher worlds are too happy with their state and conceited, thinking the law of karma does not apply to them. Beings in lower planes are suffering without break and this prevents them from attaining any progress.



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c) Highest goal

The third level is sharply separated from the two previous ones. What really matters here is the attainment of the goal, emancipation of mind. No importance is paid to a good future rebirth or to doing good deeds. Awakened person acts perfectly all by himself. On the contrary, attachment to doing good deeds could constitute a hindrance on the way to this liberation.

Very roughly we could say that the first two levels are meant for lay followers of the Buddha's teaching, who can not or do not want to fully devote themselves to attaining the highest goal and for the present are content with the first two levels. The third level is here for those, who have decided to leave the worldly life and devote themselves "full-time" and unconditionally to attainment of peace of mind, that is to say, for monks and nuns.

The distribution of verses into these three groups is not necessarily identical with their philosophical depth. Often we see verses that we would group into the first category, but they convey surprisingly deep insight into the reality of the world. On the other hand some of the verses that describe an arhant, awakened being, have no philosophical meaning at all.

Speaking about the literary aspect of the Dharmapada, even here we can not find a definite consistency. Brilliant verses, scenery, descriptions, parallels and similes go hand in hand with very dilettantish attempts to create high poetry. This is true also in the metrical sense. Some of the verses follow the metrical structure very closely, whereas some of them are defective to a degree that we can not even speak about coincidences or scribes' mistakes.



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From the above stated facts we can draw a conclusion that the Dharmapada is probably not a work of one author (although the tradition of course attributes it to the Buddha). The collection was composed by unknown editors from different verses, some could be composed by Buddha himself, some were probably uttered by his disciples. But some verses simply belong to Indian cultural inheritance - they are either general ethical and philosophical verses that can be adopted by every Indian (and not only Indian) religion or they have only very thin Buddhist garment. Many verses from the Dharmapada we can also find in non-Buddhist works, such as in the Mahābhārata (by which I do not suggest originality of one or the other version - it is only a proof of the fact, that different religious and philosophical schools freely borrowed each other's ideas).



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3. Pāli Dhammapada


Dhammapada in the Pāli [7] language belongs to the Theravāda school of Buddhism. This school is the oldest preserved form of Buddha's teaching, although it is probably not the direct word of the Buddha himself (as this school often claims). However, for the reason of its antiquity, it is quite a reliable source of information about oldest Buddhist ideas and teachings.

Of course, it is almost impossible to ascertain when exactly the Pāli Dhammapada originated. According to the Theravāda tradition the whole Canon was edited during the First Buddhist Council, which took place immediately after Buddha's death (that is during the sixth or firth century B.C.E.). But it is certain that even after this date some editing work was done on the Canon, in the way the texts are arranged as well as in the texts themselves. [8] Usual consensus takes the Third Council (that was sponsored by king Aśoka during the third century B.C.E.) as the date of the final edition of Theravāda Canon. It was written down for the first time in the first century B.C.E. in Shri Lanka.

The Canon of sacred scriptures of the Theravāda school is the only one that is completely preserved to us in an Indian language. It is called Ti-piṭaka (Three Baskets). One of these "baskets" is Sutta-piṭaka (The Basket of Discourses), that contains the main portion of speeches and sermons, by the tradition ascribed to the Buddha. This piṭaka has a number of chapters (called nikāya), of which the Khuddaka-nikāya (The Chapter of Short Works) is a collection of shorter texts that the editors were unable to place in any other chapter. And one of these texts is also the Dhammapada.

7. On of the oldest forms of so called Prakrit (prākṛt) languages, that were spoken in Northern India for a few hundred years B.C.E. and C.E.

8. To make memorizing of the texts easier, phrasing was probably unified in them. The old classification of the Canon that is spoken about in the oldest period was abolished and it was divided into so called Three Baskets.



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The Pāli Dhammapada contains four hundred twenty-three verses, divided into twenty-six chapters. The division of verses into chapters is as follows:

1. Yamaka-vagga (The Chapter of the Pairs) verses 1.-20. (20 verses)
2. Appamāda-vagga (The Chapter of Conscientiousness) 21.-32. (12)
3. Citta-vagga (The Chapter of the Mind) 33.-43. (11)
4. Puppha-vagga (The Chapter of the Flower) 44.-59. (16)
5. Bāla-vagga (The Chapter of the Fool) 60.-75. (16)
6. Paṇḍita-vagga (The Chapter of the Wise) 76.-89. (14)
7. Arahanta-vagga (The Chapter of the Perfected) 90.-99. (10)
8. Sahassa-vagga (The Chapter of Thousand) 100.-115. (16)
9. Pāpa-vagga (The Chapter of Evil) 116.-128. (13)
10. Daṇḍa-vagga (The Chapter of the Punishment) 129.-145. (17)
11. Jarā-vagga (The Chapter of the Old Age) 146.-156. (11)
12. Atta-vagga (The Chapter of the Self) 157.-166. (10)
13. Loka-vagga (The Chapter of the World) 167.-178. (12)
14. Buddha-vagga (The Chapter of the Awakened) 179.-196. (18)
15. Sukha-vagga (The Chapter of Happiness) 197.-208. (12)
16. Piya-vagga (The Chapter of Affection) 209.-220. (12)
17. Kodha-vagga (The Chapter of Anger) 221.-234. (14)
18. Mala-vagga (The Chapter of Impurity) 235.-255. (21)
19. Dhammaṭṭha-vagga (The Chapter of the Righteous) 256.-272. (17)
20. Magga-vagga (The Chapter of the Way) 273.-289. (17)
21. Pakiṇṇaka-vagga (The Chapter of Various) 290.-305. (16)
22. Niraya-vagga (The Chapter of the Hell) 306.-319. (14)
23. Nāga-vagga (The Chapter of the Elephant) 320.-333. (14)
24. Taṇhā-vagga (The Chapter of the Thirst) 334.-359. (26)
25. Bhikkhu-vagga (The Chapter of the Monk) 360.-382. (23)
26. Brāhmaṇa-vagga (The Chapter of the Brahmin) 383.-423. (41)



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It can be seen immediately that the length of the chapters varies a lot. The chapters at the beginning are longer, than those in the middle and the editors probably "caught breath" only at the end, where the chapters suddenly increase in length.

As I mentioned above, the pattern of dividing verses into chapters is extremely heterogeneous. For example, in the first chapter (Yamaka-vagga) there are pairs of verses that are somehow connected to each other or describe opposite states of mind. But we can find here also pairs of verses whose relation is a bit debatable and in some other chapters there are verses that should rather belong here.

In the fourth chapter (Puppha-vagga) the word "flower" is used in one sense or the other in all the verses. The meaning of this word in the particular context differs from verse to verse and we can not find any pattern here. The same criterion was used in other chapters as well (for example Sahassa-vagga, Daṇḍa-vagga, Loka-vagga etc.).

And the twenty-first chapter (Pakiṇṇaka-vagga) contains verses that the editors were probably unable to fit in any other place.

But at the other hand we find out that some of the chapters are quite compact in the structure. For example fifth and sixth chapters (Bāla-vagga and Paṇḍita-vagga), that talk about wise and foolish people respectively, describe the types of person in question rather complexly - the ideas that such people have, the thoughts that go on in their minds, the deeds that are the outcome thereof etc.

The best example of these "compact chapters" is the last one (Brāhmaṇa-vagga). In spite of a few verses, the majority of them have a clear unifying component - the final phrase "him do I call a Brahmin", after describing in the first part of the verse qualities and deeds of a true Brahmin.

In short, the Pāli Dhammapada is a collection, whose heterogeneity is only stressed by the fact, that some of its parts have a regular internal structure.



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4. Gāndhārī Dharmapada

Another Indian version that is known to us is the Dharmapada in the prākṛt language of gāndhārī, written in the kharoṣṭhī script. This language was spoken in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent, in the area traditionally known as Gandhāra. This was a region, which was the first to absorb foreign influences and also the first to export Indian ideas outside of the subcontinent.

If it was very hard to attempt to date the Pāli Dhammapada, it is even more difficult in the case of the Gāndhārī Dharmapada. Only a very few people have researched this question or the history of the kharoṣṭhī script in general. Based on the comparison with other findings of this script [9] it seems, that the script of our manuscript is very similar to that used on the Kurram Case and Wardak Vase. These objects can be dated roughly to the second century C.E. Therefore we can assume that the manuscript of the Gāndhārī Dharmapada can be dated to the same period. There is a general consensus that this text is the oldest Indian manuscript preserved or found so far.

There is only one (and incomplete) manuscript of the Gāndhārī Dharmapada. It was found outside of India, in the Central Asia.

One part was acquired by French explorers MM. Dutreuil de Rhins and Grenard. It was researched by scholar E. Senart and published in 1898. [10] Second part was in 1897 given to the Russian Indologist S. F. Oldenburg by N. Th. Petrovskij, the Russian General Consul in Kashgar.

9. Actually, there are quite few findings. They are mainly Aśoka's edicts in Shazbazgarhi and Mansehra, some late inscriptions usually dated between the first century B.C.E. and the second century C.E., few coins with inscriptions in this script and a collection of official documents from several places in Chinese Turkestan, mostly from the place called Niya. Next, there is so called Kurram Case, dated to the year 20 of Kaniṣka's Era, which bears an inscription about storing relics in a certain monastery of Sarvāstivāda school. Finally, we have the Wardak Vase from the year 51 of Kaniṣka's Era, commemorating establishment of a monastery of the Mahāsaṅghika school.

10. Senart, E.: Le manuscript kharoṣṭhī du Dhammapada: les fragments Dutreuil de Rhins. In.: Journal Asiatique, neuvieme serie, tome xii, pp. 193-308. Paris 1898.



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It was then further studied and finally published by Sten Konow. [11]

The manuscript was originally written on both sides of one long strip of birch bark. The parts we have today correspond roughly to the first and last thirds of the text. Because of the colophon was placed after the first thirteen chapters (listing the names of these thirteen chapters), we assume that the total number of chapters was twenty-six. It seems probable, that the author put this colophon after the half of all chapters. Another fact, that seems to speak for this reasoning is, that the transition from the right to the reverse side of the bark happens after the fourteenth chapter. The scribe probably felt the need to make sure that he will be able to finish on the reverse side and therefore turned the strip one chapter after he thought he reached one half of the text. [12]

As we can see, we know for sure only names of the first thirteen chapters. As for the following chapters, sometimes we can estimate their names by looking at the verses contained in them, sometimes even this is impossible. In the chapters preserved completely, we know the exact number of verses - the number is written under the last verse. The names of the chapters, where we can estimate them, are given in Sanskrit equivalent.

1. Brammaṇa (Brahmin) 50 verses
2. Bhikhu (Monk) 40 verses
3. Tasiṇa (Thirst)
4. Pavu (Evil)
5. Araha (Perfected One)
6. Magu (Way) 30 verses
7. Apramadu (Conscientiousness) 25 verses

11. Konow, Sten: The Oldenburg folio of the Kharoṣṭhī Dhammapada. In.: Acta Orientalia, vol. Xix, pp. 7-20. 1943.

12. This judgement was not very good. The chapters were probably arranged in descending order as for the number of verses, therefore the end of the text is not preserved, the reverse side could be covered with writing maximally from the thirds. The scribe took mechanically the half of the chapters for the half of the text.



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8. Cita (Mind)
9. Bāla (Fool)
10. Jara (Old Age) 25 verses
11. Suha (Happiness) 20 verses
12. Thera (Elder) 19 verses
13. Yamaka (Pairs) 22 verses
14. [Paṇḍita] (Wise One) 19 verses
15. [Bahuśruta] (Learned One) 16 verses
16. [Prakīrṇaka] (Various) 15 verses
17. [Krodha] (Anger) 16 verses
18. [Puṣpa] (Flower) 15 verses
19. [Sahasra] (Thousand) 17 verses
20. [Śīla] (Virtue) 10 verses
21. [Kṛtya] (Duty) 9 verses
22. [Nāga or Aśva] (Elephant or Horse)
23.- 26. ???

The total number or preserved verses is three hundred and fifty-four, including the introduction, the colophon after first thirteen verses and two verses written below the manuscript later by some other scribe. In two hundred and forty-four cases we can find a similarity with the Pāli Dhammapada. The whole manuscript shows tendency to arrange chapters in descending order as for the number of verses. If we suppose this trend in the unpreserved chapters, we can come to the lowest possible number of verses around 510 and highest around 570. [13] The reasonable estimate seems to be between 520 and 560 verses in total.

As for the formal arrangement, what was said about the Pāli Dhammapada applies as well to the Gāndhārī version. Here we also find the same irregularity in dividing verses into chapters. The striking

13. That means if we estimate the highest or lowest number of verses without breaking this "descending order".



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contrast between these two versions is immediately visible - whereas in the Pāli Dhammapada the number of verses in the chapters gets higher as we approach the end, the Gāndhārī text shows opposite tendency. We can also see, that the Gāndhārī version contains some chapters that do not have parallels in the Pāli text. Therefore, if we accept the theory about twenty-six original chapters of the manuscript, we can assume that some chapters of the Pāli version are not contained in the Gāndhārī text. Even in the case of chapters that are contained in both versions, we see different distribution of the verses. But this can be easily explained by the several present key words in them. [14]

The affiliation of this version is unclear. It is certain, that it could not be Theravāda, Sarvāstivāda or Mahāsaṅghika. [15] Therefore we must look for its affiliation among schools that were present in the region of Gandhāra and further north in Central Asia. These are mainly Kāśyapīya and Dharmaguptaka that are responsible for spreading of Buddhism beyond the borders of Indian cultural sphere. But with the material available now we can not be sure about this. We must therefore wait patiently until more parts of the Buddhist Canon written in prākṛt gāndhārī and the kharoṣṭhī script are found. [16]

14. For example, if the verse contains both the words "flower" and "monk", it can be listed in both these chapters respectively.

15. The Theravāda version is the Pāli Dhammapada. About the versions of Sarvāstivāda and Mahāsaṅghika schools we will talk later. It is highly improbable, that one school could have more versions of the same text.

16. It seems certain, that there must have been a whole version of the Canon written in this language. It is improbable, that a school would edit only its version of the Dharmapada and stop there.



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5. Udānavarga

This text (despite its different name) is also a version of the Dharmapada. It was originally written in Sanskrit and later, when Tibetan scholars made the great effort of translating of original Sanskrit texts, it was also translated into Tibetan and is a part of the Tibetan Buddhist Canon.

The word udāna- is derived from the verb ud+an- where ud- is a prefix denoting moving upwards (the English equivalent would be "up") and the verb root an- means "to breathe". Therefore, udāna means "breathing upwards", or in better words "breathing out". In Buddhist sense udāna means a short utterance (usually by the Buddha), that is pronounced by the inspiration of the moment, possibly in one single breath. It is usually translated as "joyful utterance". The word varga- is a noun derived from the verbal root vṛj- meaning (among other things) "to gather". Varga is therefore translated as "a group", "a chapter", "a collection" and similar synonyms. Udānavarga then should be translated as "A collection of joyful utterances".

The Sanskrit original is unfortunately not preserved on Indian soil itself, but thanks to the good climatic conditions in Central Asia [17] the scholars were able to reconstruct roughly two thirds of the original Sanskrit text from the manuscripts found there.

Udānavarga contains roughly one thousand verses divided into thirty-three chapters. As for the names of these chapters, we can observe certain differences in naming chapters with similar contents. Some examples are compared in the following chart:

17. Indian climate is - owing to yearly monsoons - very wet, which fact causes the manuscripts to deteriorate and disappear very quickly. Central Asia, on the other hand, is separated from Indian Subcontinent by the Himalayas mountain range and has therefore very dry desert climate. This fact helped to preserve great number of Indian Buddhist text in this area.



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Pāli Dhammapada Udānavarga
Dhammaṭṭha-vagga Śramaṇa-varga (Recluse)
Buddha-vagga Tathāgata-varga ("Thus-gone" one) [18]
Nāga-vagga Aśva-varga (Horse)
Jarā-vagga Anitya-varga (Impermanence)

We will now enlist all the names of the chapters. Because the original Sanskrit was not preserved, these names are taken from the Tibetan version. We will list them directly in English:

1. Impermanence
2. Desire
3. Lust
4. Purity
5. Agreeable Things
6. Morality
7. Virtuous Conduct
8. Speech
9. Deeds
10. Faith
11. The Recluse
12. The Way
13. Honours
14. Hatred
15. Reflection
16. Miscellaneous
17. Water
18. The Flower
19. The Horse
20. Anger

18. A very common epithet of a Buddha.



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21. "Thus-gone" one
22. The Hearer
23. Self
24. Numbers
25. Friendship
26. Nirvana
27. Sight
28. Sin
29. Day and Night
30. Happiness
31. The Mind
32. The Monk
33. The Brahmana

Preserved fractions of the Udānavarga are probably not all the part of one version of this text. All the indications point to at least two editions, but a higher number of versions is very probable. Main differences lay mostly in the language - older version are written in so called Hybrid Buddhist Sanskrit, [19] but later ones show tendency to polish the language and change wording and phrasing into Classical Sanskrit. In other places defects of the metrical structure are also removed to give way to their correct forms.

As the person, responsible for editing of the Udānavarga, is very often in the texts mentioned certain Dharmatrāta. This monk is usually supposed to be a member of the Sarvāstivāda school of Buddhism. Although it is not certain, that Dharmatrāta was really the editor of this version, it seems to be possible. He can at least be responsible for the Commentary to this text.

The affiliation of the Udānavarga to the Sarvāstivāda school is not completely proved, but it is very probable. There are no proofs at all to

19. This is a mixture of Prakrit and Sanskrit.



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counter this assumption.

6. Another Sanskrit Version

There existed at least one more Sanskrit version of the Dharmapada. But it was unfortunately completely lost, except for few short fractions. As a part of one of the classical Buddha's biographies, the Mahāvastu, there are quoted two chapters, namely Sahasra-varga (Thousand) and Bhikṣu-varga (The Monk), plus some isolated verses elsewhere in the text of the Dharmapada of unknown origin. Because this work, the Mahāvastu, was composed in the Mahāsaṅghika Buddhist school, we can therefore accept theory, that these fragments were a part of the Dharmapada version of this school.



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7. Chinese Versions

In Chinese, there are preserved four different editions of the Dharmapada. They are 法句經, 法句譬喻經, 出曜經 and 法集要頌經. We are also aware of at least two unpreserved versions.

7.1. Fa-chü-ching (法句經)

This is the oldest and most important of all Chinese versions. The authors themselves state in the foreword, that it was compiled from different sources. Unfortunately, they do not specify more clearly these sources. The work contains seven hundred and fifty-nine verses in thirty-nine chapters. Of these thirty-nine chapters, chapters 9-32 and 34-35 correspond directly by names and sequence to the Pāli Dhammapada. Even the verses in these chapters are the same, with the exception of some newly added verses.

As for the remaining thirteen chapters, in some cases we can observe a close relationship with the Udānavarga. But still we are left with six names of the sections, that we can not find parallels for in any other preserved version. One possibility is, that as the source for these chapters was taken the Gāndhārī Dharmapada, or rather those verses and chapters, that are not preserved. Another variant is to suppose that these thirteen chapters were taken from the Dharmapada of the Mahāsaṅghika school that I mentioned above. And of course, we can not rule out the possibility of still another version that was lost completely.

This version was written in the year 224 - 225 CE. The people, responsible for its edition and translation, were two Indian monks - 維祇難 and 竺將炎. It is said, that at that time there already existed one version of the Dharmapada in China, but it was of very poor standard. The translation was bad and in places misleading. It was also called 法句經 - but this version has not been preserved for us to judge its quality



p. 21

today. These two monks were asked to do a completely new translation and edition of the Dharmapada, faithfully rendering the original meaning of Indian texts. They succeeded - the translation is indeed very good as we can judge by comparing the passages parallel in Pāli Dhammapada and 法句經.

The authors state, that this text is also called 曇缽偈 - which can be only seen as an attempt to transliterate into Chinese characters the Sanskrit word Dharmapadagātha (where gātha means "a verse" or "a strophe"). The direct translation of the name Dharmapada is of course the name of the work itself, for the Sanskrit word dharma- in Chinese corresponds to the character法 and pada- is rendered by the character 句. Added is the character 經 (in Sanskrit sūtra-) to indicate the importance the editors ascribed to the text.

1. 無常品 (21 verses)
2. 教學品 (29)
3. 多聞品 (19)
4. 篤信品 (18)
5. 誡慎品 (16)
6. 惟念品 (12)
7. 慈仁品 (18)
8. 言語品 (12)
9. 雙要品 (22)
10. 放逸品 (20)
11. 心意品 (12)
12. 華香品 (17)
13. 愚闇品 (21)
14. 明哲品 (17)
15. 羅漢品 (10)
16. 述千品 (16)
17. 惡行品 (22)



p. 22

18. 刀杖品 (14)
19. 老耗品 (14)
20. 愛身品 (13)
21. 世俗品 (14)
22. 述佛品 (21)
23. 安寧品 (14)
24. 好喜品 (12)
25. 忿怒品 (26)
26. 塵垢品 (19)
27. 奉持品 (17)
28. 道行品 (28)
29. 廣衍品 (14)
30. 地獄品 (16)
31. 像喻品 (18)
32. 愛俗品 (32)
33. 利養品 (20)
34. 沙門品 (32)
35. 梵志品 (40)
36. 泥恒品 (35)
37. 生死品 (18)
38. 道利品 (20)
39. 吉祥品 (19)



p. 23

7.2. Fa-chu-p'i-yü-ching (法句譬喻經)

This version was created around 290 - 306 CE by two monks from Western Chin dynasty (西晉). Their names were 法炬 and 法立. It is a selection of verses from the 法句經, but the verses are commented upon. They are set into a narrative context and put into mouth of the Buddha himself. The stories follow a wide range of varieties and the climax of the story is always the particular verse of the Dharmapada, by which the Buddha sums up the story and the lesson that we are to take from it. Good deeds are praised and foolishness is criticized. It seems that the author was aware of the need of such a commented version of the Dharmapada. Possibly it was felt, that just the verses by themselves are not potent enough and it was necessary to put them into a larger scheme of things by actually telling the story that led to creation of the particular verse. Perhaps by this version the teachings of the Dharmapada could find their way into minds of ordinary people, as opposed to scholars and monks who were able to understand the message directly, from the rather dry style of the Dharmapada itself. It could be also means of help to the monks who were to preach the Dharma to the people. The Dharmapada is a very rich source of teachings of the Buddha on all levels and into this day it is used as an inspiration for teaching and educating the public. The commentary can be of a tremendous help to the preacher - it often offers a deeper insight into the meaning of the verse than one is able to get just by reading the verse itself.

It is interesting to note that such a commentary was produced also to the Pāli Dhammapada. But here it does not form a part of the text itself, it is rather a separate text, that one could (but did not have to) read with the original Dharmapada. It is called Commentary to the Dhammapada (Dhammapada-aṭṭhakathā) and is a part of the secondary Canon, i.e. the commentaries, that were composed to every single part of the Canon itself).



p. 24

The text contains forty chapters - thus it differs from 法句經 which has only thirty-nine of them - and also the names and sequence is slightly different in places:

1. 無常品
1. 教學品
2. 護戒品
4. 多聞品
5. 篤信品
6. 戒慎品
7. 唯念品
8. 慈仁品
9. 言語品
10. 雙要品
11. 放逸品
12. 心意品
13-1. 華香品
13-2. 喻華香品
14. 愚闇品
15. 明哲品
16. 羅漢品
17. 述千品
18. 惡行品
19. 刀杖品
20. 喻老耄品
21. 愛身品
22. 世俗品
23. 述佛品
24. 安寧品
25. 好喜品
26. 忿怒品



p. 25

27. 塵垢品
28. 奉持品
29. 道行品
30. 廣衍品
31. 地獄品
32. 像品
33-1. 愛俗品
33-2. 喻愛俗品
34. 利養品
35. 沙門品
36. 梵志品
37. 泥恒品
38. 生死品
39. 道利品
40. 吉祥品



p. 26

7.3. Ch'u-yao-ching (出曜經)

This work was composed roughly in 398-399 CE. As its authors are mentioned monks 僧伽跋澄 (probably Sanskrit Saṅghavarti) and 竺佛念 (which can mean "The Indian monk Buddhānusmṛti"). It is said in the foreword to this work, that the monk 僧伽跋澄 obtained the manuscript from India, whereas 竺佛念 was actually the one, who translated it. In its form, it is very close to 法句譬喻經, in other words, it lists the verses and then comments upon them. But in this case as a source, from which the verses to be commented upon were taken, served the Udānavarga rather than 法句經.


The authors seem to understand the Sanskrit word udāna to bear the meaning of "sunrise". That is very surprising, because the word is clearly connected with breathing (the verb root an-). It could be that they mistook the word udāna for udayana (prefix ud- meaning "up" and the verb root i- meaning "to go") which indeed denotes rising up, usually meaning the sunrise.

It consists of thirty-four chapters, thus obviously being different from two previous versions, which have more chapters. We are listing names of these chapters below:

1. 無常品
2. 欲品
3. 愛品
4. 無放逸品
5. 放逸品
6. 念品
7. 戒品
8. 學品
9. 誹謗品
10. 行品



p. 27

11. 信品
12. 沙門品
13. 道品
14. 利養品
15. 忿怒品
16. 惟念品
17. 雜品
18. 水品
19. 華品
20. 馬喻品
21. 恚品
22. 如來品
23. 聞品
24. 我品
25. 廣演品
26. 親品
27. 泥洹品
28. 觀品
29. 惡行品
30. 雙要品
31. 樂品
32. 心意品
33. 沙門品
34. 梵志品



p. 28

7.4. Fa-chi-yao-sung-ching (法集要頌經)

This text is dated approximately to the end of the ninth century CE - during the Sung (宋) dynasty. It is attributed to certain 天息災. It is therefore very late and not directly important for research on the early period of Buddhism in China. It only sums up the verses from the 出曜經 although in many places wording is different.

The main difference of course is that the commentary part was left out - only the verses are listed. The reason for compiling this book was probably to put the verses together without the need to read through extensive commentary first. Also, there might be felt a "gap" - that is to say, 法句經 lists only the verses, whereas 法句譬喻經 brings the commentary to them. Therefore, if the 出曜經 has both the verses and the commentary, 法集要頌經 could have been created as a counterpart of 法句經 - to list only the verses.

The total number of chapters is 33 - one less than 出曜經. Their names are as follows:

1. 有為品
2. 愛欲品
3. 貪品
4. 放逸品
5. 愛樂品
6. 持戒品
7. 善行品
8. 語言品
9. 業品
10. 正信品
11. 沙門品
12. 正道品
13. 利養品



p. 29

14. 怨家品
15. 憶念品
16. 清淨品
17. 水喻品
18. 華喻品
19. 馬喻品
20. 瞋恚品
21. 如來品
22. 多聞品
23. 己身品
24. 廣說品
25. 善友品
26. 圓寂品
27. 觀察品
28. 罪障品
29. 相應品
30. 樂品
31. 護心品
32. 苾芻品
33. 梵志品



p. 30

7.5. Two Unpreserved Versions

There are at least two versions of the Dharmapada that were not preserved to our times.

First of them we already mentioned in the chapter 7.1. It was the first poorly translated version of 法句經, that the Indian monks 維祇難 and 竺將炎 were called upon to translate again. So this version got lost from very obvious reasons - there was no need to copy its manuscripts, since it was not a very good work to start with. Furthermore, there appeared a new better edition that was since then copied and used as the most important Chinese version of the Dharmapada.

There was another version that was lost completely. We do not even know its name, approximate date of edition nor are we aware of the source from which this text has been translated. We only know that it was translated by a certain man from the country of Yueh-Chih (月氏). That name is applied to the nation of nomadic people that was originally living somewhere in Central Asia, probably Chinese Turkestan. It is therefore very tempting to attempt to identify this lost version with the Gāndhārī Dharmapada whose only surviving manuscript was also found in this region. But of course, there are no proofs for such a claim.



p. 31

8. Conclusion

As I stated in the Introduction, I am well aware of limitations of the present research. Complete translation of all the available versions is required, their mutual comparison, from the philosophical as well as philological points of view.

But this present research does not claim to be nothing else but the preliminary stage of the real work in this important field. We were able to discuss all the preserved versions of the Dharmapada, in Indian as well as Chinese languages, we introduced their history and also analyzed them from several points of view - philosophical, metrical, philological etc.

Of course, for this reason it was not possible to draw any definite conclusions from my research, but it did prepare all the necessary material for further work - which was exactly my aim when starting this present research.

Now we can undertake the real work - translate the Chinese versions, starting possibly with the most important of them, 法句經, compare them with the Pāli and Gāndhārī versions and other texts - for as I already mentioned, verses from the Dharmapada are often found also in non-Buddhist works, such as the great Indian epics Mahābhārata. Then we will be able to draw conclusions important for Buddhist studies and the history in general - the early period of Buddhism in China.

Therefore I present this research for what it is - first preliminary steps in a very important area that has not been very well explored so far and will be of great benefit to Buddhist studies when finished.



p. 32

9. Selected Bibliography

1. 法救: 北傳法句經. 圓光寺印經會

2. 釋惠敏, 釋齎因: 梵語初階. 台北, 法鼓文化事業 1996.

3. 吳根友: 法句經. 台北, 佛光山宗務委員印行 1997.

4. 陳慧劍: 法句譬喻經.

5. 法句經附釋.

6. 南傳法句經.

7. 出曜經.

8. 法集要頌經.

9. Ven. Ananda Maitreya: Pali made easy. Moratuwa, Nirodha Foundation 1988.

10. Apte, Vaman Shivram: The Students' Sanskrit English Dictionary. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1988.

11. Babbit, Irving: The Dhammapada, Translated from the Pāli, with an Essay on Buddha and the Occident. New York, Oxford University Press 1936.

12. Barua, Benimadhab and Mitra, Sailendranath: Prakrit Dhammapada, based upon M. Senart's Kharoṣṭhī manuscript, with text, translation and notes. Calcutta, University of Calcutta 1921.

13. Beal, Samuel: Texts from the Buddhist Canon, Commonly known as Dhammapada, with accompanying narratives. Boston, Houghton, Osgood, & Company 1878.

14. Bhattacharji, Sukumari: Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Literature. Calcutta, The Asiatic Society 1992.

15. Bhattacharya, N. N.: History of Researches on Indian Buddhism. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal 1980.

16. Brough, John: The Gāndhārī Dharmapada. (London Oriental Series, vol. 7.) London, Oxford University Press 1962.

17. Buddhadatta, Mahathera: Concise Pali-English Dictionary. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1989.



p. 33

18. Ven. Buddharakkhita: Dhammapada: A Practical Guide to the Right Living. Bangalore, Buddha Vacana Trust.

19. Chakravarti, N. P.: L'Udānavarga Sanskrit. Tome premier (Chapitres I a XXI). (Mission Pelliot en Asie centrale, Tome IV). Paris, Librairie orientaliste Paul Geuthner 1930.

20. Cheetham, Eric: An Outline of Indian Mahāyāna. Booklet No. 1: The Pre-Mahāyāna Landscape. London, The Buddhist Society 1989.

21. Coulson, Michael: Sanskrit, An Introduction to the Classical Language. New York, David McKay Company 1980.

22. Cowell, E. B. and Cough, A. E.: Sarva-darśana-saṅgraha of Mādhvācārya. Delhi, Parimal Publications 1986.

23. Dasgupta, Surendranath: A History of Indian Philosophy. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1992. 5 vols.

24. Deshpande, Madhav M.: Sanskrit & Prakrit, Sociolinguistic Issues. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1993.

25. Dhammapada. London, Pali Text Society 1914.

26. A Dictionary of Buddhism - Chinese-Sanskrit-English-Thai. Bangkok, Chan Patana Printing 1976. (漢梵英泰佛學辭典).

27. Dutt, Nalinaksha: Doctrines of the Mahāsa;ṇ;ghika school of Buddhism. Indian Historical Quarterly, 4, 1937, p. 549.

28. Dutt, Nalinaksha: Doctrines of the Saṃmītiya school of Buddhism. Indian Historical Quarterly, 1, 1939, p. 90.

29. Dutt, Nalinaksha: Doctrines of the Sarvāstivāda school of Buddhism. Indian Historical Quarterly, 4, 1938, p. 799.

30. Dutt, Sukumar: Early Buddhist Monachism. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal 1984.

31. Edgerton, Franklin: Buddhist Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1993. 2 vols.

32. Edkins, Rev. Joseph: Chinese Buddhism - Historical, Descriptive and Critical. New Delhi, Aryan Books International 1996.

33. Eitel, Ernest J.: Handbook of Chinese Buddhism, Being a Sanskrit



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Chinese Dictionary, With Vocabularies of Buddhist Terms in Pali, Sinhalese, Siamese, Burmese, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongoloan and Japanese. New Delhi, Cosmo Publications 1981.

34. Frauwallner, Erich: History of Indian Philosophy. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1993. 2 vols.

35. Fung, Yu-lan: A History of Chinese Philosophy. Translated by Bodde, Derk. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1994. 2 vols.

36. Gonda, Jan: Kurze Elementar-Grammatik der Sanskrit Sprache. Leiden, E. J. Brill 1943.

37. Harbaugh, Rick: Chinese Character Genealogy (中文字譜). 1996.

38. Hazra, Kannai Lal: Buddhism in India as described by the Chinese Pilgrims AD 399-689. Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal 1983.

39. Hazra, Kannai Lal: Constitution of the Buddhist Sangha. Delhi, B. R. Publishing Corporation 1988.

40. Hazra, Kannai Lal: History of Theravāda Buddhism in South-East Asia, with special reference to India and Ceylon. Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal 1996.

41. Johansson, Rune E. A.: Pali Buddhist Texts Explained to the Beginner. (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies Monograph Series, No. 14). London, Curzon Press 1981.

42. Kale, M. R.: A Higher Sanskrit Grammar. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1993.

43. Kalupahana, David J.: A path of Righteousness - Dhammapada. Lanham, University Press of America 1986.

44. Kimura, Ryukan: A Historical Study of the terms Hinayana and Mahayana and the Origin of Mahayana Buddhism. Patna, Indological Book Corporation 1978.

45. Lamotte, Etienne: Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien. Louvain, Museon 1958.

46. Law, Bimala Churn: Geography of Early Buddhism. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal 1979.



p. 35

47. Law, Bimala Churn: Historical Geography of Ancient India. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal 1984.

48. Law, Bimala Churn: A History of Pali Literature. Varanasi, Bhartiya Publishing Company.

49. Litvinsky, B. A.: Outline History of Buddhism in Central Asia. In: Kushan Studies in USSR, vol. XI.

50. Mangalam, S. J.: Kharoṣṭhī Script. Delhi, Eastern Book Linkers 1990.

51. Matthews, R. H.: Matthew's Chinese-English Dictionary. Taipei, Tun Huang Publishers 1975. (麥氏漢英辭典, 台北, 敦煌書局).

52. Masuda, Jiryo: Origin and Doctrines of Early Indian Buddhist Schools. In: Asia Major, January 1925, p. 4.

53. Max Mueller, F.: The Dhammapada: A Collection of Verses. (Sacred Books Of The East, vol. 10, part 1.) Oxford, Oxford University Press 1881.

54. Monier-Williams, Monier: A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1993.

55. Nakamura, Hajime: Indian Buddhism. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1986.

56. Ven. Nārada: The Dhammapada, Pāli text and translation with stories and brief notes. Colombo, Vajirārāma 1972.

57. Nārada Thera, Bhiksu Jen Hai: The Dhammapada or The Way of Truth. Taipei, Jeng Wuen Publishing Store 1994. (真理的語言 - 法句經. 英譯: 那羅陀, 中譯: 淨海. 台北, 正聞出版社印行, 民國八十三年).

58. Norman, K. R.: Pāli Literature, Including the Canonical Literature in Prakrit and Sanskrit of all the Hīnayāna Schools of Buddhism. (A History of Indian Literature, ed. Jan Gonda, vol. VII, fas. 2.) Wiesbaden, Otto Harassowitz 1983.

59. Nyanatiloka: Buddhist Dictionary, Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines. Taipei, The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation.



p. 36

60. Pathak, Raj Kumar: Historical Survey of Indian Buddhism. New Delhi, Ramanand Vidya Bhawan 1989.

61. Radhakrishnan, Sarvapalli: The Dhammapada, with introductory essays, Pāli text, English translations and notes. Oxford, Oxford University Press 1950.

62. Richards, John: The Dhammapada. Electronic Buddhist Archives (via anonymous FTP:, 1993.

63. Rhys-Davids: The Minor Antologies of the Pali Canon, Part I.: Dhammapada: Verses on Dhamma. London, Oxford University Press 1931.

64. Rhys-Davids, T. W. and Stede, William: Pali-English Dictionary. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal 1975.

65. Rockhill, W. Woodville: Udanavarga: A Collection of Verses from the Buddhist Canon. New Delhi, D. K. Publishers 1982.

66. Ven. Sarada, Weragoda: Treasury of Truth. Taipei, The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation 1993.

67. Sinor, Denis (editor): The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Taipei, SMC Publishing Inc. 1990.

68. Soothill, William Edward and Hodous, Lewis: A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, With Sanskrit And English Equivalents, A Chinese Index & A Sanskrit-Pali Index. Kaohsiung, Fo Kuang Publishing Company 1994. (中英佛學辭典, 高雄市, 佛光出版社印行, 民國八十三年).

69. Stein, Sir Aurel: On Ancient Central-Asian Tracks. Taipei, SMC Publishing 1992.

70. Tin Lien, Bhikkhuni T. N.: Concepts of Dhamma in Dhammapada. Delhi, Eastern Book Linkers 1996.

71. Tipitaka on CD-ROM. Bangkok, Mahidol University 1994.

72. Tsukamoto, Zenryu: A History of Early Chinese Buddhism. Tokyo, Kodansha International 1985. 2 vols.

73. Vīrasekara, Guṇapāla: Pāli śabda koṣaya (pāli - siṃhala - iṃgirisi).



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Colombo, Guṇasena 1968.

74. Warder, A. K.: Indian Buddhism. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1980.

75. Warder, A. K.: Introduction to Pali. London, The Pali Text Society 1984.

76. Webb, Russel: An Analysis of the Pali Canon. Kandy, Buddhist Publication Society 1975.

77. Whitney, William Dwight: The Roots, Verb Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1991.

78. Whitney, William Dwight: Sanskrit Grammar. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1992.

79. Willemen, Charles: The prefaces to the Chinese Dharmapadas Fa-Chu Ching and Ch'u-Yao Ching. In: T'oung Pao, vol. LIX.

80. Winternitz, Moritz: A History of Indian Literature. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1993. 3 vols.

81. Woolner, Alfred C.: Asoka Text and Glossary. Delhi, Low Price Publications 1993.

82. Woolner, Alfred C.: Introduction to Prakrit. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass 1986.



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法  句  經


尊者法救 撰

吳天竺沙門維祇難 等譯


無常品  第一 (二十一章)




1. 睡眠解寤 宜歡喜思 聽我所說 撰記佛言
2. 所行非常 謂興衰法 夫生輒死 此滅為樂
3. 譬如陶家 埏埴作器 一切要壞 人命亦然
4. 如河駛流 往而不返 人命如是 逝者不還
5. 譬人操杖 行牧食牛 老死猶然 亦養命去
6. 千百非一 族姓男女 貯聚財產 無不衰喪
7. 生者日夜 命自攻削 壽之消盡 如縈井水
8. 常者皆盡 高者亦墮 合會有離 生者有死



p. 39

9. 眾生相剋 以喪其命 隨行所墮 自受殃福
10. 老見苦痛 死則意去 樂家縛獄 貪世不斷
11. 咄嗟老至 色變作耄 少時如意 老見蹈藉
12. 雖壽百歲 亦死過去 為老所厭 病條至際
13. 是日已過 命則隨減 如少水魚 斯有何樂
14. 老則色衰 所病自壞 形敗腐朽 命終自然
15. 是身何用 恒漏臭處 為病所困 有老死患
16. 嗜欲自恣 非法是增 不見聞變 壽命無常
17. 非有子恃 亦非父兄 為死所迫 無親可怙
18. 晝夜慢惰 老不止婬 有財不施  
  不受佛言 有此四弊 為自侵欺  
19. 非空非海中 非入出石間 無有地方所 脫之不受死
20. 是務是吾作 當作令致是 人為此躁擾 履踐老死憂
21. 知此能自淨 如是見生盡 比丘厭魔兵 從生死得度



p. 40

教學品  第二 (二十九章)




1. 咄哉何為寐 螉螺蚌蠹類 隱弊以不淨 迷惑計為身
2. 焉有被斫創 心如嬰疾痛 遘于眾厄難 而反為用眠
3. 思而不放逸 為仁學仁跡 從是無有憂 常念自滅意
4. 正見學務增 是為世間明 所生福千倍 終不墮惡道
5. 莫學小道 以信邪見 莫習放蕩 令增欲意
6. 善修法行 學誦莫犯 行道無憂 世世常安
7. 敏學攝身 常慎思言 是到不死 行滅得安
8. 非務勿學 是務宜行 已知可念 則漏得滅
9. 見法利身 夫到善方 知利健行 是謂賢明
10. 起覺義者 學滅以固 著滅自恣 損而不興
11. 是向以強 是學得中 從是解義 宜憶念行
12. 學先斷母 率君二臣 廢諸營從 是上道人
13. 學無明類 不得善友 寧獨守善 不與愚偕



p. 41

14. 樂戒學行 奚用伴為 獨善無憂 如空野象
15. 戒聞俱善 二者孰賢 方戒稱聞 宜諦學行
16. 學先護戒 開閉心固 施而無受 仂行勿臥
17. 若人壽百歲 邪學志不善 不如生一日 精進受正法
18. 若人壽百歲 奉火修異術 不如須臾頃 事戒者福勝
19. 能行說之可 不能勿空語 虛偽無誠信 智者所屏棄
20. 學當先求解 觀察別是非 受諦應誨彼 慧然不復惑
21. 被髮學邪道 草衣內貪濁 曚曚不識真 如聾廳五音
22. 學能捨三惡 以樂消眾毒 健夫度生死 如蛇脫故皮
23. 學而多聞 持戒不失 兩世見譽 所願者得
24. 學而寡聞 持戒不完 兩世受痛 喪其本願
25. 夫學有二 常親多聞 安諦解義 雖困不邪
26. 稊稗害禾 多欲放學 耘除眾惡 成收必多
27. 慮而後言 辭不強梁 法說義說 言而莫違
28. 善學無犯 畏法曉忌 見微知者 誡無後患
29. 遠捨罪福 務成梵行 終身自攝 是名善學



p. 42

多聞品  第三 (十九章)




1. 多聞能持固 奉法為垣墻 精進難踰毀 從是戒慧成
2. 多聞令志明 已明智慧增 智則博解義 見義行法安
3. 多聞能除憂 能以定為歡 善說甘露法 自致得泥洹
4. 聞為知法律 解疑亦見正 從聞捨非法 行到不死處
5. 為能師現道 解疑令學明 亦興清淨本 能奉持法藏
6. 能攝為解義 解則義不穿 受法猗法者 從是疾得安
7. 若多少有聞 自大以憍人 是如盲執燭 照彼不自明
8. 夫求爵位財 尊貴升天福 辯慧世間悍 斯聞為第一
9. 帝王聘禮聞 天上天亦然 聞為第一藏 最富旅力強
10. 智者為聞屈 好道者亦樂 王者盡心事 雖釋梵亦然
11. 仙人常敬聞 況貴巨富人 是以慧為貴 可禮無過是
12. 事日為明故 事父為恩故 事君以力故 聞故事道人



p. 43

13. 人為命事醫 欲勝依豪強 法在智慧處 福行世世明
14. 察友在為謀 別伴在急時 觀妻在房樂 欲知智在說
15. 聞為今世利 妻子昆弟友 亦致後世福 積聞成聖智
16. 是能散憂恚 亦除不祥衰 欲得安隱吉 當事多聞者
17. 斫創無過憂 射箭無過愚 是壯莫能拔 唯從多聞除
18. 盲從是得眼 闇者從得燭 亦導世間人 如目將無目
19. 是故可捨癡 離慢豪富樂 務學事聞者 是名積聚德



篤信品  第四 (十八章)




1. 信慚戒意財 是法雅士譽 斯道明智說 如是昇天世
2. 愚不修天行 亦不譽布施 信施助善者 從是到彼安
3. 信者真人長 念法所住安 近者意得上 智壽壽中賢
4. 信能得道 法致滅度 從聞得智 所到有明



p. 44

5. 信能度淵 攝為般師 精進除苦 慧到彼岸
6. 士有信行 為聖所譽 樂無為者 一切縛解
7. 信之與戒 慧意能行 健夫度恚 從是脫淵
8. 信使戒誠 亦受智慧 在在能行 處處見養
9. 比方世利 慧信為明 是財上寶 家產非常
10. 欲見諸真 樂聽講法 能捨慳垢 此之為信
11. 信能度河 其福難奪 能禁止盜 野沙門樂
12. 無信不習 好剝正言 如拙取水 掘泉揚泥
13. 賢夫習智 樂仰清流 如善取水 思令不擾
14. 信不染他 唯賢與人 可好則學 非好則遠
15. 信為我輿 莫知斯載 如人象調 自調最勝
16. 信財戒財 慚愧亦財 聞財施財 慧為七財
17. 從信守戒 常淨觀法 慧而利行 奉敬不忘
18. 生有此財 不問男女 終以不貧 賢者識真



p. 45

誡慎品  第五 (十六章)




1. 人而常清 奉律至終 淨修善行 如是戒成
2. 慧人護戒 福致三寶 名聞得利 後上天樂
3. 常見法處 護戒為明 得成真見 輩中吉祥
4. 持戒者安 令身無惱 夜臥恬淡 寤則常歡
5. 修戒布施 作福為福 從是適彼 常到安處
6. 何終為善 何善安止 何為人寶 何盜不取
7. 戒終老安 戒善安止 慧為人寶 福盜不取
8. 比丘立戒 守攝諸根 食知自節 悟意令應
9. 以戒降心 守意正定 內學止觀 無忘正智
10. 明哲守戒 內思正智 行道如應 自清除苦
11. 蠲除諸垢 盡慢勿生 終身求法 勿暫離聖
12. 戒定慧解 是當善惟 都已離垢 無禍除有
13. 著解則度 餘不復生 越諸魔界 如日清明



p. 46

14. 狂惑自恣 已常外避 戒定慧行 求滿勿離
15. 持戒清淨 心不自恣 正智已解 不睹邪部
16. 是往吉處 為無上道 亦捨非道 離諸魔界



惟念品  第六 (十二章)




1. 出息入息念 具滿諦思惟 從初竟通利 安如佛所說
2. 是則炤世間 如雲解月現 起止學思惟 坐臥不廢忘
3. 比丘立是念 前利後則勝 始得終必勝 逝不睹生死
4. 若見身所住 六更以為最 比丘常一心 便自知泥洹
5. 已有是諸念 自身常建行 若其不如是 終不得意行
6. 是隨本行者 如是度愛勞 若能悟意念  
  知解一心樂 應時等行法 是度老死惱  
7. 比丘悟意行 當令應是念 諸念生死棄 為能作苦際
8. 常當聽微妙 自覺悟其意 能覺者為賢 終始無所會



p. 47

9. 以覺意能應 日夜務學行 當解甘露要 令諸漏得盡
10. 夫人得善利 乃來自歸佛 是故當晝夜 常念佛法眾
11. 已知自覺意 是為佛弟子 常當晝夜念 佛與法及僧
12. 念身念非常 念戒布施德 空不願無相 晝夜當念是



慈仁品  第七 (十八章)




1. 為仁不殺 常能攝身 是處不死 所適無患
2. 不殺為仁 慎言守心 是處不死 所適無患
3. 彼亂已整 守以慈仁 見怒能忍 是為梵行
4. 至誠安徐 口無麤言 不瞋彼所 是謂梵行
5. 垂拱無為 不害眾生 無所嬈惱 是應梵行
6. 常以慈哀 淨如佛教 知足知止 是度生死
7. 少欲好學 不惑於利 仁而不犯 世上所稱
8. 仁壽無犯 不興變快 人為諍擾 慧以嘿安



p. 48

9. 普憂賢友 哀加眾生 常行慈心 所適者安
10. 仁儒不邪 安止無憂 上天衛之 智者樂慈
11. 晝夜念慈 心無剋伐 不害眾生 是行無仇
12. 不慈則殺 違戒言妄 過不與他 不觀眾生
13. 酒致失志 為放逸行 後墮惡道 無誠不真
14. 履仁行慈 博愛濟眾 有十一譽 福常隨身
15. 臥安覺安 不見惡夢 天護人愛 不毒不兵
16. 水火不喪 在所得利 死昇梵天 是為十一
17. 若念慈心 無量不廢 生死漸薄 得利度世
  仁無亂志 慈最可行 愍傷眾生 此福無量
18. 假令盡壽命 懃事天下人 象馬以祠天 不如行一慈



言語品  第八 (十二章)




1. 惡言罵詈 憍陵蔑人 興起是行 疾怨滋生



p. 49

2. 遜言順辭 尊敬於人 棄結忍惡 疾怨自滅
3. 夫士之生 斧在口中 所以斬身 由其惡言
4. 諍為少利 如掩失財 從彼致諍 令意向惡
5. 譽惡惡所譽 是二俱為惡 好以口儈鬥 是後皆無安
6. 無道墮惡道 自增地獄苦 遠愚修忍意 念諦則無犯
7. 從善得解脫 為惡不得解 善解者為賢 是為脫惡惱
8. 解自抱損意 不躁言得中 義說如法說 是言柔軟甘
9. 是以言語者 必使己無患 亦不剋眾人 是為能善言
10. 言使投意可 亦令得歡喜 不使至惡意 出言眾悉可
11. 至誠甘露說 如法而無過 諦如義如法 是為近道立
12. 說如佛言者 是吉得滅度 為能作浩際 是謂言中上



p. 50

雙要品  第九 (二十二章)




1. 心為法本 心尊心使 中心念惡  
  即言即行 罪苦自追 車轢于轍  
2. 心為法本 心尊心使 中心念善  
  即言即行 福樂自追 如影隨形  
3. 隨亂意行 抱愚入冥 自大無法 何解善言
4. 隨正意行 開解清明 不無妒嫉 敏達善言
5. 慍於怨者 未嘗無怨 不慍自除 是道可宗
6. 不好責彼 務自省身 如有知此 永滅無患
7. 行見身淨 不攝諸根 飲食不節  
  慢墮怯弱 為邪所制 如風靡草  
8. 觀身不淨 能攝諸根 食知節度  
  常樂精進 不為邪動 如風大山  
9. 不吐毒態 欲心馳騁 未能自調 不應法衣
10. 能吐毒態 戒意安靜 降心已調 此應法衣
11. 以真為偽 以偽為真 是為邪計 不得真利
12. 知真為真 見偽知偽 是為正計 必得真利
13. 蓋屋不密 天雨則漏 意不惟行 淫泆為穿
14. 蓋屋善密 雨則不漏 攝意惟行 淫泆不生



p. 51

15. 鄙夫染人 如近臭物 漸迷習非 不覺成惡
16. 賢夫染人 如近香熏 進智習善 行成潔芳
17. 造憂後憂 行惡兩憂 彼憂惟懼 見罪心懅
18. 造喜後喜 行善兩喜 彼喜惟歡 見福心安
19. 今悔後悔 為惡兩悔 厥為自殃 受罪熱惱
20. 今歡後歡 為善兩歡 厥為自祐 受福悅豫
21. 巧言多求 放蕩無戒 懷婬怒癡  
  不惟止觀 聚如群牛 非佛弟子  
22. 時言少求 行道如法 除婬怒癡  
  覺正意解 見對不起 是佛弟子  



放逸品  第十 (二十章)




1. 戒為甘露道 放逸為死徑 不貪則不死 失道為自喪
2. 慧智守道勝 終不為放逸 不貪致歡喜 從是得道樂



p. 52

3. 常當惟念道 自強守正行 健者得度世 吉祥無有上
4. 正念常興起 行淨惡易滅 自制以法壽 不犯善名增
5. 發行不放逸 約以自調心 慧能作定明 不返冥淵中
6. 愚人意難解 貪亂好諍訟 上智常重慎 護斯為寶尊
7. 莫貪莫好諍 亦莫嗜欲樂 思心不放逸 可以獲大安
8. 放逸如自禁 能卻之為賢 已昇智慧閣  
  去危為即安 明智觀於愚 譬如山與地  
9. 居亂而身正 彼為獨覺悟 是力過師子 棄惡為大智
10. 睡眠重若山 癡冥為所蔽 安臥不計苦 是以常受胎
11. 不為時自恣 能制漏得盡 自恣魔得便 如師子搏鹿
12. 能不自恣者 是為戒比丘 彼思正淨者 常當自護心
13. 比丘謹慎樂 放逸多憂僭 變諍小致大 積惡入火焚
14. 守戒福致善 犯戒有懼心 能斷三界漏 此乃近泥洹
15. 若前放逸 後能自禁 是照世間 念定其宜
16. 過失為惡 追覆以善 是照世間 念善其宜
17. 少壯捨家 盛修佛教 是照世間 如月雲消



p. 53

18. 人前為惡 後止不犯 是照世間 如月雲消
19. 生不施惱 死而不慼 是見道悍 應中勿憂
20. 斷濁黑法 學惟清白 度淵不反  
  棄猗行止 不復染樂 欲斷無憂  



心意品  第十一 (十二章)




1. 意使作狗 難護難禁 慧正其本 其明乃大
2. 輕躁難持 唯欲是從 制意為善 自調則寧
3. 意微難見 隨欲而行 慧常自護 能守即安
4. 獨行遠逝 覆藏無形 損意近道 魔繫乃解
5. 心無住息 亦不知法 迷於世事 無有正智
6. 念無適止 不絕無邊 福能遏惡 覺者為賢
7. 佛說心法 雖微非真 當覺逸意 莫隨放心
8. 見法最安 所願得成 慧護微意 斷苦因緣



p. 54

9. 有身不久 皆當歸土 形壞神去 寄住何貪
10. 心豫造處 往來無端 念多邪僻 自為招惡
11. 是意自造 非父母為 可勉向正 為福勿回
12. 藏六如龜 防意如城 慧與魔戰 勝則無患



華香品  第十二 (十七章)




1. 孰能擇地 捨鑑取天 誰說法句 如擇善華
2. 學者擇地 捨鑑取天 善說法句 能採德華
3. 知世坏喻 幻法忽有 斷魔華敷 不睹生死
4. 見身如沫 幻法自然 斷魔華敷 不睹生死
5. 身病則萎 若華零落 死命來至 如水湍驟
6. 貪欲無厭 消散人念 邪致之財 為自侵欺
7. 如蜂集華 不嬈色香 但取味去 仁入聚然
8. 不務觀彼 作與不作 常自省身 知正不正



p. 55

9. 如可意華 色好無香 工語如是 不行無得
10. 如可意華 色美且香 工語有行 必得其福
11. 多作寶花 結步搖綺 廣積德者 所生轉好
12. 奇草芳花 不逆風熏 近道敷開 德人遍香
13. 旃檀多香 青蓮芳花 雖曰是真 不如戒香
14. 華香氣微 不可謂真 持戒之香 到天殊勝
15. 戒具成就 行無放逸 定意度脫 長離魔道
16. 如作田溝 近于大道 中生蓮華 香潔可意
17. 有生死然 凡夫處邊 慧者樂出 為佛弟子



愚闇品  第十三 (二十一章)




1. 不寐夜長 疲倦道長 愚生死長 莫知正法
2. 癡意常冥 逝如流川 在一行彊 獨而無偶



p. 56

3. 愚人著數 憂慼久長 與愚居苦 於我猶怨
4. 有子有財 愚惟汲汲 我且非我 何憂子財
5. 暑當止此 寒當止此 愚多務慮 莫知來變
6. 愚矇愚極 自謂我智 愚而勝智 是謂極愚
7. 頑闇近智 如瓢斟味 雖久狎習 猶不知法
8. 開達近智 如舌嘗味 雖須臾習 即解道要
9. 愚人施行 為身招患 快心作惡 自致重殃
10. 行為不善 退見悔吝 致涕流面 報由宿習
11. 行為德善 進睹歡喜 應來受福 喜笑快習
12. 過罪未熟 愚以恬惔 至其熟處 自受大罪
13. 愚所望處 不謂適苦 臨墮厄地 乃知不善
14. 愚惷作惡 不能自解 殃追自焚 罪成熾燃
15. 愚好美食 月月滋甚 於十六分 未一思法
16. 愚生念慮 至終無利 自招刀杖 報有印章
17. 觀處知其愚 不施而廣求 所墮無道智 往往有惡行
18. 遠道近欲者 為食在學名 食猗家居故 多取供異姓



p. 57

19. 學莫墮二望 莫作家沙門 貪家違聖教 為後自匱乏
20. 此行與愚同 但令欲慢增 利求之願異 求道意亦異
21. 是以有識者 出為佛弟子 棄愛捨世習 終不墮生死



明哲品  第十四 (十七章)




1. 深觀善惡 心知畏忌 畏而不犯 終吉無憂
2. 故世有福 念思紹行 善致其願 福祿轉勝
3. 信善作福 積行不厭 信知陰德 久而必彰
4. 常避無義 不親愚人 思從賢友 押附上士
5. 喜法臥安 心悅意清 聖人演法 慧常樂行
6. 仁人智者 齋戒奉道 如星中月 照明世間
7. 弓工調角 水人調船 材匠調木 智者調身
8. 譬如厚石 風不能移 智者意重 毀譽不傾



p. 58

9. 譬如深淵 澄靜清明 慧人聞道 心淨歡然
10. 大人體無欲 在所照然明 雖或遭苦樂 不高現其智
11. 大賢無世事 不願子財國 常守戒慧道 不貪邪富貴
12. 智人知動搖 譬如沙中樹 朋友志未強 隨色染其素
13. 世皆沒淵 鮮剋度岸 如或有人 欲度心奔
14. 誠貪道者 覽受正教 此近彼岸 脫死為上
15. 斷五陰法 靜思智慧 不反入淵 棄猗其明
16. 抑制情欲 絕樂無為 能自拯濟 使意為慧
17. 學取正智 意惟正道 一心受諦  
  不起為樂 漏盡習除 是得度世  



羅漢品  第十五 (十章)




1. 去離憂患 脫於一切 縛結已解 冷而無煖
2. 心淨得念 無所貪樂 已度癡淵 如鴈棄池



p. 59

3. 量腹而食 無所藏積 心空無想 度眾行地
4. 如空中鳥 遠逝無礙 世間習盡 不復仰食
5. 虛心無患 已到脫處 譬如飛鳥 暫下輒逝
6. 制根從止 如馬調御 捨憍慢習 為天所敬
7. 不怒如地 不動如山 真人無垢 生死世絕
8. 心已休息 言行亦正 從正解脫 寂然歸滅
9. 棄欲無著 缺三界障 望意已絕 是謂上人
10. 在聚若野 平地高岸 應真所過 莫不蒙祐
  彼樂空閑 眾人不能 快哉無望 無所欲求



述千品  第十六 (十六章)




1. 雖誦千言 句義不正 不如一要 聞可滅意
2. 雖誦千言 不義何益 不如一義 聞行可度
3. 雖多誦經 不解何益 解一法句 行可得道



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4. 千千為敵 一夫勝之 未若自勝 為戰中上
5. 自勝最賢 故曰人雄 護意調身 自損至終
6. 雖曰尊天 神魔梵釋 皆莫能勝 自勝之人
7. 月千反祠 終身不輟 不如須臾  
  一心念法 一念道福 勝彼終身  
8. 雖終百歲 奉事火祠 不如須臾  
  供養三尊 一供養福 勝彼百年  
9. 祭神以求福 從後觀其報 四分未望一 不如禮賢者
10. 能善行禮節 常敬長老者 四福自然增 色力壽而安
11. 若人壽百歲 遠正不持戒 不如生一日 守戒正意禪
12. 若人壽百歲 邪偽無有智 不如生一日 一心學正智
13. 若人壽百歲 懈怠不精進 不如生一日 勉力行精進
14. 若人壽百歲 不知成敗事 不如生一日 見微知所忌
15. 若人壽百歲 不見甘露道 不如生一日 服行甘露味
16. 若人壽百歲 不知大道義 不如生一日 學推佛法要



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惡行品  第十七 (二十二章)




1. 見善不從 反隨惡心 求福不正 反樂邪婬
2. 凡人為惡 不能自覺 愚癡快意 令後鬱毒
3. 凶人行虐 沉漸數數 快欲為人 罪報自然
4. 吉人行德 相隨積增 甘心為之 福應自然
5. 妖孽見福 其惡未熟 至其惡熟 自受罪虐
6. 貞祥見禍 其善未熟 至其善熟 必受其福
7. 擊人得擊 行怨得怨 罵人得罵 施怒得怒
8. 世人無聞 不知正法 生此壽少 何宜為惡
9. 莫輕小惡 以為無殃 水渧雖微  
  漸盈大器 凡罪充滿 從小積成  
10. 莫輕小善 以為無福 水渧雖微  
  漸盈大器 凡福充滿 從纖纖積  
11. 夫士為行 好之與惡 各自為身 終不敗亡
12. 好取之士 自以為可 沒取彼者 人亦沒之



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13. 惡不即時 如搆牛乳 罪在陰祠 如灰覆火
14. 戲笑為惡 以作身行 號泣受報 隨行罪至
15. 作惡不覆 如兵所截 牽往乃知  
  已墮惡行 後受苦報 如前所習  
16. 如毒摩瘡 船入洄澓 惡行流衍 靡不傷剋
17. 加惡誣罔人 清白猶不污 愚殃反自及 如塵逆風坋
18. 過失犯非惡 能追悔為善 是明照世間 如日無雲曀
19. 夫士所以行 然後身自見 為善則得善 為惡則得惡
20. 有識墮胞胎 惡者入地獄 行善上昇天 無為得泥洹
21. 非空非海中 非隱山石間 莫能於此處 避免宿惡殃
22. 眾生有苦惱 不得免老死 唯有仁智者 不念人非惡



刀杖品  第十八 (十四章)




1. 一切皆懼死 莫不畏杖痛 恕己可為譬 勿殺勿行杖



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2. 能常安群生 不加諸楚毒 現世不逢害 後世常安隱
3. 不當麤言 言當畏報 惡往禍來 刀杖歸軀
4. 出言以善 如叩鐘磬 身無論議 度世則易
5. 歐杖良善 妄讒無罪 其殃十倍 災迅無赦
6. 生受酷痛 形體毀折 自然惱病 失意恍惚
7. 人所誣咎 或縣官厄 財產耗盡 親戚離別
8. 舍宅所有 災火焚燒 死入地獄 如是為十
9. 雖裸剪髮 長服草衣 沐浴踞石 奈癡結何
10. 不伐殺燒 亦不求勝 仁愛天下 所適無怨
11. 世黨有人 能知慚愧 是名誘進 如策良馬
12. 如策善馬 進道能遠 人有信戒  
  定意精進 受道慧成 便滅眾苦  
13. 自嚴以修法 滅損受淨行 杖不加群生 是沙門道人
14. 無害於天下 終身不遇害 常慈於一切 孰能與為怨



p. 64

老耗品  第十九 (十四章)




1. 何喜何笑 命常熾然 深蔽幽冥 如不求錠
2. 見身形範 倚以為安 多想致病 豈知非真
3. 老則色衰 病無光澤 皮緩肌縮 死命近促
4. 身死神徙 如御棄車 肉消骨散 身何可怙
5. 身為如城 骨幹肉塗 生至老死 但藏恚慢
6. 老則形變 喻如故車 法能除苦 宜以仂學
7. 人之無聞 老若特牛 但長肌肥 無有福慧
8. 生死無聊 往來艱難 意猗貪身 生苦無端
9. 慧以見苦 是故棄身 滅意斷行 愛盡無生
10. 不修梵行 又不富財 老如白鷺 守伺空池
11. 既不守戒 又不積財 老羸氣竭 思故何逮
12. 老如秋葉 何穢襤褸 命疾脫至 亦用後悔
13. 命欲日夜盡 及時可懃力 世間諦非常 莫惑墮冥中
14. 當學燃意燈 自練求智慧 離垢勿染汙 執燭觀道地



p. 65

愛身品  第二十 (十三章)




1. 自愛身者 慎護所守 悕望欲解 學正不寐
2. 為身第一 常自勉學 利乃誨人 不惓則智
3. 學先自正 然後正人 調身入慧 必遷為上
4. 身不能利 安能利人 心調體正 何願不至
5. 本我所造 後我自受 為惡自更 如剛鑽珠
6. 人不持戒 滋蔓如藤 逞情極欲 惡行日增
7. 惡行危身 愚以為易 善最安身 愚以為難
8. 如真人教 以道法身 愚者疾之  
  見而為惡 行惡得惡 如種苦種  
9. 惡自受罪 善自受福 亦各須熟  
  彼不自代 習善得善 亦如種甜  
10. 自利利人 益而不費 欲知利身 戒聞為最



p. 66

11. 如有自憂 欲生天上 敬樂聞法 當念佛教
12. 凡用必豫慮 勿以損所務 如是意日修 事務不失時
13. 夫治事之士 能至終成利 真見身應行 如是得所欲



世俗品 第二十一 (十四章)




1. 如車行道 捨平大途 從邪徑敗 生折軸憂
2. 離法如是 從非法增 愚守至死 亦有折患
3. 順行正道 勿隨邪業 行住臥安 世世無患
4. 萬物如泡 意如野馬 居世若幻 奈何樂此
5. 若能斷此 伐其樹根 日夜如是 必至于定
6. 一施如信 如樂之人 或從惱意  
  以飯食眾 此輩日夜 不得定意  
7. 世俗無眼 莫見道真 如少見明 當養善意
8. 如鴈將群 避羅高翔 明人導世 度脫邪眾



p. 67

9. 世皆有死 三界無安 諸天雖樂 福盡亦喪
10. 觀諸世間 無生不終 欲離生死 當行道真
11. 癡覆天下 貪令不見 邪疑卻道 苦愚行是
12. 一法脫過 謂妄語人 不免後世 靡惡不更
13. 雖多積珍寶 嵩高至于天 如是滿世間 不如見道跡
14. 不善像如善 愛如似無愛 以苦為樂像 狂夫為所厭



述佛品 第二十二 (二十一章)




1. 己勝不受惡 一切勝世間 叡智廓無疆 開矇令入道
2. 決網無罣礙 愛盡無所積 佛意深無極 未踐跡令踐
3. 勇健立一心 出家日夜滅 根斷無欲意 學正念清明
4. 見諦淨無穢 已度五道淵 佛出照世間 為除眾憂苦
5. 得生人道難 生壽亦難得 世間有佛難 佛法難得聞
6. 我既無師保 亦獨無伴侶 積一行得佛 自然通聖道



p. 68

7. 般師能渡水 精進為橋梁 人以種姓繫 度者為健雄
8. 壞惡度為佛 止地為梵志 除饉為學法 斷種為弟子
9. 觀行忍第一 佛說泥洹最 捨罪作沙門 無嬈害於彼
10. 不嬈亦不惱 如戒一切持 少食捨身貪  
  有行幽隱處 意諦以有黠 是能奉佛教  
11. 諸惡莫作 諸善奉行 自淨其意 是諸佛教
12. 佛為尊貴 斷漏無婬 諸釋中雄 一群從心
13. 快哉福報 所願皆成 敏於上寂 自致泥洹
14. 或多自歸 山川樹神 廟立圖像 祭祠求福
15. 自歸如是 非吉非上 彼不能來 度我眾苦
16. 如有自歸 佛法聖眾 道德四諦 必見正慧
17. 生死極苦 從諦得度 度世八道 斯除眾苦
18. 自歸三尊 最吉最上 唯獨有是 度一切苦
19. 士如中正 志道不慳 利哉斯人 自歸佛者
20. 明人難值 亦不比有 其所生處 族親蒙慶
21. 諸佛興快 說經道快 眾聚和快 和則常安



p. 69

安寧品 第二十三 (十四章)




1. 我生已安 不慍於怨 眾人有怨 我行無怨
2. 我生已安 不病於病 眾人有病 我行無病
3. 我生已安 不慼於憂 眾人有憂 我行無憂
4. 我生已安 清淨無為 以樂為食 如光音天
5. 我生已安 澹泊無事 彌薪國火 安能燒我
6. 勝則生怨 負則自鄙 去勝負心 無爭自安
7. 熱無過婬 毒無過怒 苦無過身 樂無過滅
8. 無樂小樂 小辯小慧 觀求大者 乃獲大安
9. 我為世尊 長解無憂 正度三有 度降眾魔
10. 見聖人快 得依附快 得離愚人 為善獨快
11. 守正道快 工說法快 與世無諍 戒具常快



p. 70

12. 依賢居快 如親親會 近仁智者 多聞高遠
13. 壽命鮮少 而棄世多 學當取要 令至老安
14. 諸欲得甘露 棄欲滅諦快 欲度生死苦 當服甘露味



好喜品 第二十四 (十二章)




1. 違道則自順 順道則自違 捨義取所好 是為順愛欲
2. 不當趣所愛 亦莫有不愛 愛之不見憂 不愛見亦憂
3. 是以莫造愛 愛憎惡所由 已除縳結者 無愛無所憎
4. 愛喜生憂 愛喜生畏 無所愛喜 何憂何畏
5. 好樂生憂 好樂生畏 無所好樂 何憂何畏
6. 貪欲生憂 貪欲生畏 解無貪欲 何憂何畏
7. 貪法戒成 至誠知慚 行身近道 為眾所愛
8. 欲態不出 思正乃語 心無貪愛 必截流渡
9. 譬人久行 從遠吉還 親厚普安 歸來歡喜



p. 71

10. 好行福者 從此道彼 自受福祚 如親來喜
11. 起從聖教 禁制不善 近道見愛 離道莫親
12. 近與不近 所住者異 近道昇天 不近墮獄



忿怒品 第二十五 (二十六章)




1. 忿怒不見法 忿怒不知道 能除忿怒者 福喜常隨身
2. 貪婬不見法 愚癡意亦然 除婬去癡者 其福第一尊
3. 恚能自制 如止奔車 是為善御 棄冥入明
4. 忍辱勝恚 善勝不善 勝者能施 至誠勝欺
5. 不欺不怒 意不多求 如是三事 死則上天
6. 常自攝身 慈心不殺 是生天上 到彼無憂
7. 意常覺寤 明暮勤學 漏盡意解 可致泥洹
8. 人相謗毀 自古至今 既毀多言  
  又毀訥訒 亦毀中和 世無不毀  



p. 72

9. 欲意非聖 不能制中 一毀一譽 但為利名
10. 明智所譽 唯稱是賢 慧人守戒 為所譏謗
11. 如羅漢淨 莫而誣謗 諸人咨嗟 梵釋所稱
12. 常守慎身 以護瞋恚 除身惡行 進修德行
13. 常守慎言 以護瞋恚 除口惡言 誦習法言
14. 常守慎心 以護瞋恚 除心惡念 思惟念道
15. 節身慎言 守攝其心 捨恚行道 忍辱最強
16. 捨恚離慢 避諸愛貪 不著名色 無為滅苦
17. 起而解怒 婬生自禁 捨不明健 斯皆得安
18. 瞋斷臥安 恚滅婬憂 怒為毒本 軟意梵志
19. 言善得譽 斷為無患 同志相近 詐為作惡
20. 後別餘恚 火自燒惱 不知慚愧 無戒有怒
21. 為怒所牽 不厭有務 有力近兵 為力近軟
22. 夫忍為上 宜常忍羸 舉眾輕之 有力者忍
23. 夫忍為上 宜常忍羸 自我與彼  
  大畏有三 如知彼作 宜滅己中  



p. 73

24. 俱兩行義 我為彼教 如知彼作 宜滅己中
25. 善智勝愚 麤言惡說 欲常勝者 於言宜默
26. 夫為惡者 怒有怒報 怒不報怒 勝彼鬥負



塵垢品 第二十六 (十九章)




1. 生無善行 死墮惡道 往疾無間 到無資用
2. 當求智慧 以然意定 去垢勿污 可離苦形
3. 慧人以漸 安徐稍進 洗除心垢 如工鍊金
4. 惡生於心 還自壞形 如鐵生垢 反食其身
5. 不誦為言垢 不勤為家垢 不嚴為色垢 放逸為事垢
6. 慳為惠施垢 不善為行垢 今世亦後世 惡法為常垢
7. 垢中之垢 莫甚於癡 學當捨惡 比丘無垢
8. 茍生無恥 如鳥長喙 強顏耐辱 名曰穢生



p. 74

9. 廉恥雖苦 義取清白 避辱不妄 名曰潔生
10. 愚人好殺 言無誠實 不與而取 好犯人婦
11. 逞心犯戒 迷惑於酒 斯人世世 自掘身本
12. 人如覺是 不當念惡 愚近非法 久自燒沒
13. 若信布施 欲揚名譽 會人虛飾 非入淨定
14. 一切斷欲 截意根原 晝夜守一 必入定意
15. 著垢為塵 從染塵漏 不染不行 淨而離愚
16. 見彼自侵 常內自省 行漏自欺 漏盡無垢
17. 火莫熱於婬 捷莫疾於怒 網莫密於癡 愛流駛乎河
18. 虛空無轍跡 沙門無外意 眾人盡樂惡 唯佛淨無穢
19. 虛空無轍跡 沙門無外意 世間皆無常 佛無我所有



p. 75

奉持品 第二十七 (十七章)




1. 好經道者 不兢於利 有利無利 無欲不惑
2. 常愍好學 正心以行 權懷寶慧 是謂為道
3. 所謂智者 不必辯言 無恐無懼 守善為智
4. 奉持法者 不以多言 雖素少聞  
  身依法行 守道不忌 可謂奉法  
5. 所謂老者 不必年耆 形熟髮白 惷愚而已
6. 謂懷諦法 順調慈仁 明遠清潔 是為長老
7. 所謂端正 非色如花 慳嫉虛飾 言行有違
8. 謂能捨惡 根原已斷 慧而無恚 是謂端正
9. 所謂沙門 非必除髮 妄語貪取 有欲如凡
10. 謂能止惡 恢廓弘道 息心滅意 是為沙門
11. 所謂比丘 非時乞食 邪行婬彼 稱名而已
12. 謂捨罪福 淨修梵行 慧能破惡 是為比丘
13. 所謂仁明 非口不言 用心不淨 外順而已
14. 謂心無為 內行清虛 此彼寂滅 是為仁明
15. 所謂有道 非救一物 普濟天下 無害為道
16. 戒眾不言 我行多誠 得定意者 要由閉損
17. 意解求安 莫習凡人 使結未盡 莫能得脫



p. 76

道行品 第二十八 (二十八章)




1. 八直最上道 四諦為法跡 不婬行之尊 施燈必得明
2. 是道無復畏 見淨乃度世 此能壞魔丘 力行滅邪苦
3. 我已開正道 為大現異明 已聞當自行 行乃解邪縛
4. 生死非常苦 能觀見為慧 欲離一切苦 行道一切除
5. 生死非常空 能觀見為慧 欲離一切苦 但當勤行道
6. 起時當即起 莫如愚覆淵 與墮與瞻聚 計罷不進道
7. 念應念則正 念不應則邪 慧而不起邪 思正道乃成
8. 慎言守意念 身不善不行 如是三行除 佛說是得道
9. 斷樹無伐本 根在猶復生 除根乃無樹 比丘得泥洹
10. 不能斷樹 親戚相戀 貪意自縛 如犢慕乳



p. 77

11. 能斷意本 生死無疆 是為近道 疾得泥洹
12. 貪婬致老 瞋恚致病 愚癡致死 除三得道
13. 釋前解後 脫中度彼 一切念滅 無復老死
14. 人營妻子 不觀病法 死命卒至 如水湍驟
15. 父子不救 餘親何望 命盡怙親 如盲守燈
16. 慧解是意 可修經戒 勤行度世 一切除苦
17. 遠離諸淵 如風卻雲 已滅思想 是為知見
18. 智為世長 惔樂無為 知受正教 生死得盡
19. 知眾行空 是為慧見 能厭世苦 從是道除
20. 知眾行苦 是為慧見 能厭世苦 從是道除
21. 眾行非身 是為慧見 能厭世苦 從是道除
22. 吾語汝法 愛箭為射 宜以自勗 受如來言
23. 吾為都以滅 往來生死盡 非一情以解 所演為道眼
24. 駛流注于海 潘水漾疾滿 故為智者說 可趣服甘露
25. 前未聞法輪 轉為哀眾生 於是奉事者 禮之度三有
26. 三念可念善 三亦難不善 從念而有行 滅之為正斷



p. 78

27. 三定為轉念 棄猗行無量 得三三窟除 解結可應念
28. 知以戒禁惡 思惟慧樂念 已知世成敗 息意一切解



廣衍品 第二十九 (十四章)




1. 施安雖小 其報彌大 慧從小施 受見景福
2. 施勞於人 而欲望祐 殃咎歸身 自遘廣怨
3. 已為多事 非事亦造 伎樂放逸 惡習日增
4. 精進惟行 習是捨非 修身自覺 是為正習
5. 既自解慧 又多學問 漸進普廣 油酥投水
6. 自無慧意 不好學問 凝縮狹小 酪酥投水
7. 近道名顯 如高山雪 遠道闇昧 如夜發箭
8. 為佛弟子 常寤自覺 晝夜念佛 惟法思眾
9. 為佛弟子 常寤自覺 日暮思禪 樂觀一心



p. 79

10. 人當有念意 每食知自少 則是痛欲薄 節消而保壽
11. 學難捨罪難 居在家亦難 會止同利難 難難無過有
12. 比丘乞求難 何可不自勉 精進得自然 後無欲於人
13. 有信則戒成 從戒多致寶 亦從得諧偶 在所見供養
14. 一坐一處臥 一行無放恣 守一以正身 心樂居樹間



地獄品 第三十 (十六章)




1. 妄語地獄近 作之言不作 二罪後俱受 是行自牽往
2. 法衣在其身 為惡不自禁 茍沒惡行者 終則墮地獄
3. 無戒受供養 理豈不自損 死噉燒鐵丸 然熱劇火炭
4. 放逸有四事 好犯他人婦 臥險非福利 毀三淫泆四
5. 不福利墮惡 畏惡畏樂寡 王法重罰加 身死入地獄
6. 譬如拔菅草 執緩則傷手 學戒不禁制 獄錄乃自賊
7. 人行為慢惰 不能除眾勞 梵行有玷缺 終不受大福



p. 80

8. 常行所當行 自持必令強 遠離諸外道 莫習為塵垢
9. 為所不當為 然後致鬱毒 行善常吉順 所適無悔吝
10. 其於眾惡行 欲作若已作 是苦不可解 罪近難得避
11. 妄證求賂 行己不正 怨讚艮人  
  以狂狂治士 罪縛斯人 自投于坑  
12. 如備邊城 中外牢固 自守其心  
  非法不生 行缺致憂 令墮地獄  
13. 可羞不羞 非羞反羞 生為邪見 死墮地獄
14. 可畏不畏 非畏反畏 信向邪見 死墮地獄
15. 可避不避 可就不就 玩習邪見 死墮地獄
16. 可近則近 可遠則遠 恒守正見 死墮善道



p. 81

象喻品 第三十一 (十八章)




1. 我如象鬥 不恐中箭 當以誠信 度無戒人
2. 譬象調正 可中王乘 調為尊人 乃受誠信
3. 雖為常調 如彼新馳 亦最善象 不如自調
4. 彼不能適 人所不至 唯自調者 能到調方
5. 如象名財守 猛害難禁制 繫絆不與食 而猶暴逸象
6. 沒在惡行者 恒以貪自繫 其象不知厭 故數入胞胎
7. 本意為純行 及常行所安 悉捨降伏結 如鉤制象調
8. 樂道不放逸 能常自護心 是為拔身苦 如象出于埳
9. 若得賢能伴 俱行行善悍 能伏諸所聞 至到不失意
10. 不得賢能伴 俱行行惡悍 廣斷王邑里 寧獨不為惡
11. 寧獨行為善 不與愚為侶 獨而不為惡 如象驚自護
12. 生而有利安 伴軟和為安 命盡為福安 眾惡不犯安
13. 人家有母樂 有父斯亦樂 世有沙門樂 天下有道樂
14. 持戒終老安 信正所正善 智慧最安身 不犯惡最安
15. 如馬調軟 隨意所如 信戒精進 定法要具
16. 明行成立 忍和意定 是斷諸苦 隨意所如
17. 從是往定 如馬調御 斷恚無漏 是受天樂
18. 不自放逸 從是多寤 羸馬比良 棄惡為賢



p. 82

愛欲品 第三十二 (三十二章)




1. 心放在婬行 欲愛增枝條 分布生熾盛 超躍貪果猴
2. 以為愛忍苦 貪欲著世間 憂患日夜長 莚如蔓草生
3. 人為恩愛惑 不能捨情欲 如是憂愛多 潺潺盈于池
4. 夫所以憂悲 世間苦非一 但為緣愛有 離愛則無憂
5. 己意安棄憂 無憂何有世 不憂不染求 不愛焉得安
6. 有憂以死時 為致親屬多 涉憂之長塗 愛苦常墮危
7. 為道行者 不與欲會 先誅愛本  
  無所植根 勿如刈葦 令心復生  
8. 如樹根深固 雖截猶復生 愛意不盡除 輒當還受苦
9. 猿猴得離樹 得脫復趣樹 眾人亦如是 出獄復入獄
10. 貪意為常流 習與憍慢并 思想猗婬欲 自覆無所見



p. 83

11. 一切意流衍 愛結如葛藤 唯慧分別見 能斷意根原
12. 夫從愛潤澤 思想為滋蔓 愛欲深無底 老死是用增
13. 所生枝不絕 但用食貪欲 養怨益丘塚 愚人常汲汲
14. 雖獄有鉤鍱 慧人不謂牢 愚見妻子息 染著愛甚牢
15. 慧說愛為獄 深固難得出 是故當斷棄 不視欲能安
16. 見色心迷惑 不惟觀無常 愚以為美善 安知其非真
17. 以婬樂自裹 譬如蠶作繭 智者能斷棄 不盼除眾苦
18. 心念放逸者 見婬以為淨 恩愛意盛增 從是造獄牢
19. 覺意滅婬者 常念欲不淨 從是出邪獄 能斷老死患
20. 以欲網自蔽 以愛蓋自覆 自恣縛於獄  
  如魚入笱口 為老死所伺 若犢求母乳  
21. 離欲滅愛跡 出網無所弊 盡道除獄縛 一切此彼解
22. 已得度邊行 是為大智士 勿親遠法人 亦勿為愛染
23. 不斷三世者 會復墮邊行 若覺一切法 能不著諸法
24. 一切愛意解 是為通聖意 眾施經施勝  
  眾味道味勝 眾樂法樂勝 愛盡勝眾苦  



p. 84

25. 愚以貪自縛 不求度彼岸 貪為敗處故 害人亦自害
26. 愛欲意為田 婬怨癡為種 故施度世者 得福無有量
27. 伴少而貨多 商人怵惕懼 嗜欲賊害命 故慧不貪欲
28. 心可則為欲 何必獨五欲 違可絕五欲 是乃為勇士
29. 無欲無有畏 恬惔無憂患 欲除使結解 是為長出淵
30. 欲我知汝本 意以思想生 我不思想汝 則汝而不有
31. 伐樹勿休 樹生諸惡 斷樹盡株 比丘滅度
32. 夫不伐樹 少多餘親 心繫於此 如犢求母



利養品 第三十三 (二十章)




1. 芭蕉以實死 竹蘆實亦然 駏驉坐妊死 士以貪自喪
2. 如是貪無利 當知從癡生 愚為此害賢 首領分于地
3. 天雨七寶 欲猶無厭 樂少苦多 覺者為賢
4. 雖有天欲 慧捨無貪 樂離恩愛 為佛弟子



p. 85

5. 遠道順邪 貪養比丘 止有慳意 以供彼姓
6. 勿猗此養 為家捨罪 此非至意 用用何益
7. 愚為愚計 欲慢用增 異哉失利 泥洹不同
8. 諦知是者 比丘佛子 不樂利養 閑居卻意
9. 自得不恃 不從他望 望彼比丘 不至正定
10. 夫欲安命 息心自省 不知計數 衣服飲食
11. 夫欲安命 息心自省 取得知足 守行一法
12. 夫欲安命 息心自省 如鼠藏穴 潛隱習教
13. 約利約耳 奉戒思惟 為慧所稱 清吉勿怠
14. 如有三明 解脫無漏 寡智鮮識 無所憶念
15. 其於食飲 從人得利 而有惡法 從供養嫉
16. 多結怨利 強服法衣 但望飲食 不奉佛教
17. 當知是過 養為大畏 寡取無憂 比丘釋心
18. 非食命不濟 孰能不揣食 夫立食為先 知是不宜嫉
19. 嫉先創己 然後創人 擊人得擊 是不得除
20. 寧噉燒石 吞飲洋銅 不以無戒 食人信施



p. 86

沙門品 第三十四 (三十二章)




1. 端目耳鼻口 身意常守正 比丘行如是 可以免眾苦
2. 手足莫妄犯 節言順所行 常內樂定意 守一行寂然
3. 學當守口 寡言安徐 法義為定 言必柔軟
4. 樂法欲法 思惟安法 比丘依法 正而不費
5. 學無求利 無愛他行 比丘好他 不得定意
6. 比丘少取 以得無積 天人所譽 生淨無穢
7. 比丘為慈 愛敬佛教 深入止觀 滅行乃安
8. 一切名色 非有莫惑 不近不憂 乃為比丘
9. 比丘扈船 中虛則輕 除淫怒癡 是為泥洹
10. 捨五斷五 思惟五根 能分別五 乃渡河淵
11. 禪無放逸 莫為欲亂 不吞洋銅 自惱燋形



p. 87

12. 無禪不智 無智不禪 道從禪智 得至泥洹
13. 當學入空 靜居止意 樂獨屏處 一心觀法
14. 常制五陰 伏意如水 清淨和悅 為甘露味
15. 不受所有 為慧比丘 攝根知足 戒律悉持
16. 生當行淨 求善師友 智者成人 度苦致喜
17. 如衛師華 熟如自墮 釋婬怒癡 生死自解
18. 止身止言 心守玄默 比丘棄世 是為受寂
19. 當自敕身 內與心爭 護身念諦 比丘惟安
20. 我自為我 計無有我 故當損我 調乃為賢
21. 喜在佛教 可以多喜 至到寂寞 行滅永安
22. 儻有少行 應佛教戒 此照世間 如日無曀
23. 棄慢無餘憍 蓮華水生淨 學能捨此彼 如是勝於故
24. 割愛無戀慕 不受如蓮華 比丘渡河流 勝欲明於故
25. 截流自恃 逝心卻欲 仁不割欲 一意猶走
26. 為之為之 必強自制 捨家而懈 意猶復染



p. 88

27. 行懈緩者 勞意弗除 非淨梵行 焉致大寶
28. 沙門何行 如意不禁 步步著粘 但隨思走
29. 袈裟披肩 為惡不損 惡惡行者 斯墮惡道
30. 不調難誡 如風枯樹 作自為身 曷不精進
31. 息心非剔 慢訑無戒 捨貪思道 乃應息心
32. 息心非剔 放逸無信 能滅眾苦 為上沙門



梵志品 第三十五 (四十章)




1. 截流而渡 無欲如梵 知行已盡 是謂梵志
2. 以無二法 清淨渡淵 諸欲結解 是謂梵志
3. 適彼無彼 彼彼已空 捨離貪婬 是謂梵志
4. 思惟無垢 所行不漏 上求不起 是謂梵志
5. 日照於晝 月照於夜 甲兵照軍  
  禪照道人 佛出天下 照以切冥  



p. 89

6. 非剃為沙門 稱吉為梵志 謂能捨眾惡 是則為道人
7. 出惡為梵志 入正為沙門 棄我眾穢行 是則為捨家
8. 若猗於愛 心無所著 已捨已正 是滅眾苦
9. 身口與意 淨無過失 能捨三行 是謂梵志
10. 若心曉了 佛所說法 觀心自歸 淨於為水
11. 非蔟結髮 名為梵志 誠行法行 清白則賢
12. 飾髮無慧 草衣何施 內不離著 外捨何益
13. 被服弊惡 躬承法行 閑居思惟 是謂梵志
14. 佛不教彼 讚己自稱 如諦不妄 乃為梵志
15. 絕諸可欲 不婬其志 委棄欲數 是謂梵志
16. 斷生死河 能忍起度 自覺出塹 是謂梵志
17. 見罵見擊 默受不怒 有忍辱力 是謂梵志
18. 若見侵欺 但念守戒 端身自調 是謂梵志
19. 心棄惡法 如蛇脫皮 不為欲污 是謂梵志
20. 覺生為苦 從是滅意 能下重擔 是謂梵志
21. 解微妙慧 辯道不道 體行上義 是謂梵志



p. 90

22. 棄捐家居 無家之畏 少求寡欲 是謂梵志
23. 棄放活生 無賊害心 無所嬈惱 是謂梵志
24. 避爭不爭 犯而不慍 惡來善待 是謂梵志
25. 去婬怒癡 憍慢諸惡 如蛇脫皮 是謂梵志
26. 斷絕世事 口無麤言 八道審諦 是謂梵志
27. 所世惡法 修短巨細 無取無捨 是謂梵志
28. 今世行淨 後世無穢 無習無捨 是謂梵志
29. 棄身無猗 不誦異行 行甘露滅 是謂梵志
30. 於罪與福 兩行永除 無憂無塵 是謂梵志
31. 心喜無垢 如月盛滿 謗毀已除 是謂梵志
32. 見癡往來 墮塹受苦 欲單渡岸  
  不好他語 唯滅不起 是謂梵志  
33. 已斷恩愛 離家無欲 愛有已盡 是謂梵志
34. 離人聚處 不墮天聚 諸聚不歸 是謂梵志
35. 棄樂無樂 滅無熅燸 健違諸世 是謂梵志
36. 所生已訖 死無所趣 覺安無依 是謂梵志



p. 91

37. 已度五道 莫知所墮 習盡無餘 是謂梵志
38. 于前于後 乃中無有 無操無捨 是謂梵志
39. 最雄最勇 能自解度 覺意不動 是謂梵志
40. 自知宿命 本所更來 得要生盡  
  叡通道玄 明如能默 是謂梵志  



泥洹品 第三十六 (三十五章)




1. 忍為最自守 泥洹佛稱上 捨家不犯戒 息心無所害
2. 無病最利 知足最富 厚為最友 泥洹最快
3. 飢為大病 行為最苦 已諦知此 泥洹最樂
4. 少往善道 趣惡道多 如諦知此 泥洹最安
5. 從因生善 從因墮惡 由因泥洹 所緣亦然
6. 麇鹿依野 鳥依虛空 法歸其報 真人歸滅
7. 始無如不 始不如無 是為無得 亦無有思



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8. 心難見習可睹 覺欲者乃具見 無所樂為苦際 在愛欲為增痛
9. 明不清淨能御 無所近為苦際 見有見聞有聞 念有念識有識
10. 睹無著亦無識 一切捨為得際 除身想滅痛行 識已盡為苦竟
11. 猗則動虛則淨 動非近非有樂 樂無近為得寂 寂已寂已往來
12. 來往絕無生死 生死斷無此彼 此彼斷為兩滅 滅無餘為苦除
13. 比丘有世生 有有有作行 有無生無有 無作無所行
14. 夫唯無念者 為能得自致 無生無復有 無作無行處
15. 生有作行者 是為不得要 若已解不生 不有不作行
16. 則生有得要 從生有已起 作行致死生 為開為法果
17. 從食因緣有 從食致憂樂 而此要滅者 無復念行跡
18. 諸苦法已盡 行滅湛然安 比丘吾已知 無復諸入地
19. 無有虛空入 無諸入用入 無想不想入 無今世後世
20. 亦無日月想 無往無所懸 我已無往反 不去而不來
21. 不沒不復生 是際為泥洹 如是像無像 苦樂為以解
22. 所見不復恐 無言言無疑 斷有之射箭  
  遘愚無所猗 是為第一快 此道寂無上  



p. 93

23. 受辱心如地 行忍如門閾 淨如水無垢 生盡無彼受
24. 利勝不足恃 雖勝猶復苦 當自求去勝 已勝無所生
25. 畢故不造新 厭胎無婬行 種燋不復生 意盡如火滅
26. 胞胎為穢海 何為樂婬行 雖上有善處 皆莫如泥洹
27. 悉知一切斷 不復著世間 都棄如滅度 眾道中斯勝
28. 佛以現諦法 智勇能奉持 行淨無瑕穢 自知度世安
29. 道務先遠欲 早服佛教戒 滅惡極惡際 易如鳥逝空
30. 若已解法句 至心體道行 是度生死岸 苦盡而無患
31. 道法無親疏 正不問羸強 要在無識想 結解為清淨
32. 上智饜腐身 危跪非實真 苦多而樂少 九孔無一淨
33. 慧以危貿安 棄猗脫眾難 形腐銷為沫 慧見捨不貪
34. 觀身為苦器 生老病無痛 棄垢行清淨 可以獲大安
35. 依慧以卻邪 不受漏得盡 行淨致度世 天人莫不禮



p. 94

生死品 第三十七 (十八章)




1. 命如果待熟 常恐會零落 已生皆有苦 孰能致不死
2. 從初樂恩愛 可婬入泡影 受形命如電 晝夜流難止
3. 是身為死物 精神無形法 假令死復生 罪福不敗亡
4. 終始非一世 從癡愛久長 自此受苦樂 身死神不喪
5. 身四大為色 識四陰曰名 其情十八種 所緣起十二
6. 神止凡九處 生死不斷滅 世間愚不聞 蔽闇無天眼
7. 自塗以三垢 無目意妄見 謂死如生時 或謂死斷滅
8. 識神造三界 善不善五處 陰行而默到 所往如響應
9. 欲色不色有 一切因宿行 如種隨本像 自然報如意
10. 神以身為名 如火隨形字 著燭為燭火 隨炭草糞薪
11. 心法起則起 法滅而則滅 興衰如雨雹 轉轉不自識
12. 識神走五道 無一處不更 捨身復受身 如輪轉著地
13. 如人一身居 去其故室中 神以形為廬 形壞神不亡
14. 精神居形驅 猶雀藏器中 器破雀飛去 身壞神逝生



p. 95

15. 性癡淨常想 樂身想疑想 嫌望非上要 佛說是不明
16. 一本二展轉 三垢五彌廣 諸海十三事 淵銷越度歡
17. 三事斷絕時 知身無所直 命氣熅煖事 捨身而轉逝
18. 當其死臥地 猶草無所知 觀其狀如是 但幻而愚貪



道利品 第三十八 (二十章)




1. 人知奉其上 君父師道士 信戒施聞慧 終吉所生安
2. 宿命有福慶 生世為人尊 以道安天下 奉法莫不從
3. 王為臣民長 常以慈愛下 身率以法戒 示之以休咎
4. 處安不忘危 慮明福轉厚 福德之反報 不問尊以卑
5. 夫為世間將 修正不阿狂 心調勝諸惡 如是為法王
6. 見正能施惠 仁愛好利人 既利以平均 如是眾附親
7. 如牛厲渡水 導正從亦正 奉法心不邪 如是眾普安



p. 96

8. 勿妄嬈神像 以招苦痛患 惡意為自煞 終不至善方
9. 戒德可恃怙 福報常隨己 見法為人長 終遠三惡道
10. 戒慎除苦畏 福德三界尊 鬼龍邪毒害 不犯持戒人
11. 無義不誠信 欺妄好鬥諍 當知遠離此 近愚興罪多
12. 仁賢言誠信 多聞戒行具 當知親附此 近智誠善多
13. 善言不守戒 志亂無善行 雖身處潛隱 是為非學法
14. 美說正為上 法說為第二 愛說可彼三 誠說不欺四
15. 無便獲利刃 自以剋其身 愚學好妄說 行牽受幸戾
16. 貪婬瞋恚癡 是三非善本 身以斯自害 報由癡愛生
17. 有福為天人 非法受惡形 聖人明獨見 常善承佛令
18. 戒德後世業 以作福追身 天人稱譽善 心正無不安
19. 為惡不念止 日縛不自悔 命逝如川流 是恐宜守戒
20. 今我上體首 白生為被盜 已有天使召 時正宜出家



p. 97

吉祥品 第三十九 (十九章)




1. 佛尊過諸天 如來常現義 有梵志道士 來問何吉祥
2. 於是佛愍傷 為說真有要 已信樂正法 是為最吉祥
3. 若不從天人 希望求僥倖 亦不禱祠神 是為最吉祥
4. 友賢擇善居 常先為福德 敕身從真正 是為最吉祥
5. 去惡從就善 避酒知自節 不婬于女色 是為最吉祥
6. 多聞如戒行 法律精進學 修己無所爭 是為最吉祥
7. 居孝事父母 治家養妻子 不為空之行 是為最吉祥
8. 不慢不自大 知足念反復 以時誦習經 是為最吉祥
9. 所聞常以忍 樂欲見沙門 每講輒聽受 是為最吉祥
10. 持齋修梵行 常欲見賢聖 依附明智者 是為最吉祥
11. 以信有道德 正意向無疑 欲脫三惡道 是為最吉祥
12. 等心行布施 奉諸得道者 亦敬諸天人 是為最吉祥
13. 常欲離貪欲 愚癡瞋恚意 能習誠道見 是為最吉祥
14. 若以棄非務 能勤修道用 常事於可事 是為最吉祥



p. 98

15. 一切為天下 建立大慈意 修仁安眾生 是為最吉祥
16. 欲求吉祥福 當信敬於佛 欲求吉祥福 當聞法句義
17. 欲求吉祥福 當供養眾僧 戒具清淨者 是為最吉祥
18. 智者居世間 常習吉祥行 自致成慧見 是為最吉祥
19. 梵志聞佛教 心中大歡喜 既前禮佛足 歸命佛法眾