(般若波羅蜜多心經幽贊 )
Ah-yueh Yeh
Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal
Chung-Hwa Insitute of Buddhist Studies
NO.3 April, 1990




        The Praj~naapaaramitaa-hrdaya-suutra( 般若波羅蜜多心
        經 )is not one  of the  Vij~naanavaada's  texts, but
        Kuei-chi  (窺基  )in his PPHV(  般若波羅蜜多心經幽贊
        )explains its meanings with Vij~naanavada's theories
        by means  of not only  borrowing  the theories  from
        LAS( 楞伽經 ), MSA (大乘莊嚴經論  )and YCBH 瑜伽師地
        論 )etc., but also reconstructing  their theories as
        his new theories.  Of these the "aatyantika" (阿顛底
        伽 )appears  in PPHV as the Fifth Nature implicating
        three probledms, therefore, I explain  in this paper
        these  three problems  as follows:(1) Concering  the
        First Problem of why Kuei-chi omits the "icchantika"
        (一闡提伽 )and "an-icchantika" or "aacchantika (阿闡
        提伽 )in PPHV, I deal  with the theories  of LAS,MAS
        and YCBH for the purpose  of finding  out the reason
        which Kuei-chi  claims that "agotra"  (無種姓 ), the
        Fifth  Nature, contains  three  kinds: "icchantika",
        "anicchantika"  and "atyantika" in his VMSVY [c-k] (
        成唯識論掌中樞要 ).(2) The Second Problem is that if
        Kuei-chi   does   not   support   the  theories   of
        ""  (大悲菩薩 ), why does he
        claim in PPHV that "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva" (觀
        自在菩薩 )has completed  Enlightment? Regarding this
        problem,   I   deal    with    the    theories    of
        Saddharmapu.n.darika's  Commentary( 法華玄贊 ), PPHV
        and YCBh's Commenetary (瑜伽論記 )for the prupose of
        proving that Kuei-chi permits the theories of  (3) The Third Problem  is
        that  if  Kuei-chi   holds  that  "agotra"  is  only
        "atyantaagotra"  (畢竟無種姓  ), why does he in PPHV
        not only exlpain that both 8th and 7th vij~nanas are
        good natures, but also select the "buddha-gotra" (佛
        性 )and "tathaagata-garbha"  (如來藏  )etc.  for the
        explanations of the natures of " chien-hsiang-cheng-
        hsing"  (遣相證性  ), one of the Five  Vij~nanavada-
        perceptions (五重唯識觀 )? For this problem, I first
        make  a comparative  table  and  then  expain  their
        meanings for


        the purpose  of understaning  that Kuei-chi  in PPHV
        does   not   hold the  Indian"
        dharma"   (畢竟無涅槃法 ).
            In CONCLUSION, I  offer  two  keys  to solve the
        above problems: (1) The "atyantika" can connect with
        either "agotra" or 'gotra";  the "atyantikaagatra" (
        具畢竟無種姓  )and "atyantika-gotra"  (具畢竟種姓 ),
        The "aatyantika"  in PPHV has these two meanings.(2)
        The  "  顛  "  of  "aatyantika"(  阿顛底迦  )can  be
        interpreted   as  a  misprint   of  the   "  顛  "of
        "anicchnatika"  (阿闡底迦  ).  Aside from these  two
        keys,  should  it  be  suggested  that  "agotra"  be
        retrieved   as  the  Fifth  Naturs,  which  contains
        "icchantika",   "anicchantika"   and   "aatyantika",
        claimed by Kuei-chi in his VMSVy [c-k]( 樞要 ).


            Kuei-chi   (窺基   A.D.632-682)  and  his  Great
        Teacher Hsuen-tsang (玄奘 A.D.600-64) are the famous
        founders  of the  Chinese  Vij~naanavaada's  school,
        Fa-hsiang      tzung)    .      The     VMS      [h]
        [vij~naptimatratasiddhi, 成唯識論  ] is an important
        basic  text  of this school, which  introduced  some
        special theories of Vasubandhu (世親.  A.D. 320-400)
        and  Dharmapaala  (護法  A.D.  530-561)  to  Chinese
        Buddhist  scholars as the new Chinese vij~naanavaada
        1 in the Tang Dynasty, of these the doctrines of the
        three  vehicles  and the "five distinctive  natures"
        (FDN, wu-chung-hsing-peih, 五種性別 )are very famous
            The FDN only appears  once in VMS [h] 2, but its
        five names [bodhisattva( 菩薩 ),pratyeka-buddha  (獨
        [  緣  ]  覺  ), sraavaka  (聲聞  ), anityata(  不定
        ),agotra(  無種性 )] are introduced  by Kuei-chi  in
        his VMSVy [s-k]3 (述記 ), vol.1.  first, and next in
        vol.11, he enumerates the LAS (La.nkavataara-suutra,
        入楞伽經 ) vol.2, Wu-shang-I-chin  (無上依經 )vol.1,
        Suvikraanta-    vikramipariprccha-PP(   善勇猛般若經
        )vol.1., Mahaapraj~naa-paaramita-suutra(  大般若經 )
        vol.593, MSA  (Mahaayaanasuutraannkara, 大乘莊嚴經論
        ) vol.1.,  and  YCBh   (Yogaacarabhuumi,  瑜伽師地論
        )vol.21.for  the purpose of proving that these texts
        mentioned  the  FDN.  But  he does  not explain  the
        meanings of the FDN, because in his other


        commentary  of VMSVy[c-k](  成唯識論掌中樞要  ),4 he
        has already explicated them in all details.  In them
        we find the Fifth "agotra" (without  lineage, 無種姓
        )  containing (1)   " icchantika " ( 一闡提伽 )  (2)
        "an-icchantika,  or  "aacchantika"(  阿闡提伽  ) and
        (3)"atyantika"( 阿顛底伽,ah-tien-chi-chia).
            Now this "atyantika" appears as the Fifth Nature
        ("gotra", lineage) with the other three  natures  of
        the three vehicles(  三乘 )and one nature "anityata"
        (不定  , undetermined  one), in  his  commentary  of
        PPHS.5  (Praj~naapaaramitaa-hrdaya-suustra, 般若波羅
        蜜多心經),named Pan-jo-po-lo-mito-hsin-chin-yu-tsan,
        (般若波羅蜜多心經贊 ).  These five names of FDN only
        appear as the representotions  of the five different
        persons in practicing the boddhisattva's  path (菩薩
        行 )without  any explanation  of their meanings  and
        characteristics in PPHV.
            PPHS(   心經   ) ,  of   course,  is   not   the
        Vij~naanavaada's  text, but  Kuei-chi  explains  the
        practicing PP (Praj~napaaramita, 般若波羅蜜多 ), the
        Second  "cittauttaapana"6  (第二練磨心  ), with  the
        theories   of  the   vij~naanavaada,  in  which   he
        sometimes  explains  with  his own special  theories
        which  are  different  from  not only  the texts  of
        Tri^m'sikaa, VMS, but also  the YCBh.  If we compare
        these  theories, we will find that this "aatyantika"
        in PPHV has some problems. Therefore, I will attempt
        to explain  in  this  paper  what  the meanings  and
        problems this "aatyantika" has in the PPHV.

        I. The First Problem of "aatyantika"
        (A) The "agotra" in LAS & MSA"

            Why  does   Kuei-chi   omit   "icchantika"   and
        "an-icchantika"  in  the  PPHV? As  concerning  this
        problem,let us study  the theories  of VMSVy  [c-k],
        for the purpose of seeking out why Kuei-chi explains
        that the Fifth Nature, named "agotra" comprises  the
        "icchantika"   an-icchantika"    and   "aatyantika".
            Kuei-chi,  in  his   VMSVy   [c-k]7,  introduces
        various  theories  from some famous  texts, of these
        the  theories  of LAS and MSA, I think, will  be the
        important  avenues  whereby  to work  out the  above
        problem.  Therefore, I select  the main theories  of
        the Fifth  Nature, the "agotra"  in the texts of LAS
        and MSA as follows. the main theories of LAS are:8
        (1) The   one   who   dejects    all   good    roots
            (sarva-ku'salamuulotsarga), not only


            resists  the bodhisattva-pi.taka  (菩薩藏 ), but
            also dislikes the liberation (  However,
            if he meets the Buddhas, good friends  etc., and
            generates  the bodhicitta  (菩提心 ), he finally
            can attain the
        (2) The bodhisattva who, for the beneficence  of all
            the living bings, makes the following  vows from
            the biginningless time.
                 "I will not attain the nirvaana  as long as
            all the living beings do not attain the"
                 Therefore  He  absolutely  does  not attain
            the (atyantato na parinirvaati), since
            he understands  that the characteristics  of all
            dharmas    are    originally     in
            (aadiparinirv.rtaan  sarvadharmaan  vidita).  In
            this case he is named the bodhisattvecchantika (
            菩薩闡提 ).
            From the above explanations  we understand  that
        the Fifth Nature, "agotra"  in LAS has two different
        "icchantikas" who own the natures to be the Buddhas.
        Therefore,  the  other  meaning   of  "agotra",  the
        "without-buddha-gotra"  is  not  explained  in  LAS.
        Next, the main theories of MSA are:9
            The   dharma   of  without   getting
        (, 無般涅槃法  )is in the  state
        of "agotra" which has two-types:
        (1) The    aparinirvaana-dharma     in    time    10
            (, 時邊無般涅槃法  )wich
            again has four kinds;
            (a) du'scaritaikaantika  (一向行惡行, absolutely
                doing the bad deeds).
            (b) "samucchinnaku'salamuula"  (普斷諸善 ([ 白 ]
                根, utterly destroying the good roots)
            (c) "amok.sabhaagiiya-ku'salamuula"  (無有解脫分
                [ 善根 ], without the good root of having to
                do with liberation).
            (d) "hinaku'salamuulas^mbhaara.h"
                (善  [  根  ], 少亦無因, the  defeated  good
                roots  and  unperfect   equipment   for  the
        (2)The   dharma   of  absolutely   without   getting
  (, 畢竟無涅
           槃法 )means  that the one who is absolutely  with
           the "hetu" (cause), by  which  there  is no gotra
           of attaining
            Of   the    above   explanations,   the    first
        "" means that the one who is
        temporarily  without "gotra", but, when he meets the
        Buddhas, good   friends   and  good  "pratyaya"   (a
        co-operating  cause), he will regain his "gotra" and
        become a buddha. Therefore, this "
        dharma"  is just the same  as the  two "icchantikas"


        the   "dejecting    the   good   roots"    and   the
        "bodhisattvecchantika" in LAS as mentioned before.In
        this case the later " a"
        has  the  real  meaning  of  "agotra".  This  is why
        Kuei-chi  selects the above theories of LAS and MSA,
        and  claims   that   the  Fifth   Nature   comprises
        three-types of (1) "icchantiaka"  (2) "anicchantika"
        and (3) "aatyantika", which are considered to be the
        new theories of Kuei-chi.
            For these  reasons, Kuei-chi  explains  that the
        "icchantika"   means   the   one  who  desires   the
        "sa^msaara"  (生死輪迴  ).  This explanation  is the
        same as that the Fu-sin-lung (佛性論, TTP 31, p.797c
        )said;  and the "an-icchantika"  means  the one  who
        undesires  the  From this  meanings,these
        two, the  "icchantika"  and  the "anicchantika"  are
        common  to the other  two: the one who has "breaking
        good roots", and the "".  In
        other words Kuei-chi  selects  the two "icchantikas"
        from  LAS  for  his  first  two  " icchantika "  and
        "anicchantika",   and   he   finally   selects   the
        "atyantaapari" from the MSA for his
        third  one, the " aatyantika " which  means that the
        one who is absolutely without getting
            And Kuei-chi in his conclusion says that the one
        who is without  the [buddha]gotra, the "agotra", can
        also named the first two names, the "icchantika" and
        the "an-icchantika", who will attian the enlightment
        in a long time;  but the last  one, the "aatyantika"
        can not attain the enlightment. From this statement,
        we  understant   that  Kuei-chi   claims   that  the
        "agotra",  the  Fifth  Nature, has  three  tipes  of
        "icchantika", "anicchantika"  and "aatyantika".  But
        in the same  text, he claims  that  the "icchantika"
        has  three kind types of (1) :breaking good  roots",
        (2) "mahaakaruna", (3) "agotra", which tells us that
        the  "agotra"  becomes  one of the "icchantika"  and
        named  "agotrecchantika"  (無性闡提  ), in which the
        cause  and  result  are  in-complete  in becoming  a
            Anyway, Kuei-chi selects the theories of LAS and
        MSA and accepts  that the Fifth  Nature  is "agotra"
        or  "icchantika", but  he  coins  the  new  theories
        for claiming that both of "agotra"  and "icchantika"
        separately  have their own three types as meantioned
        before, the first  two types  of them  will  finally
        attain the
        nirvaa.nas,  but  the  only   last   types   of  the
        "aatyantika"   of  "agotra"  and  the  "agotra"   of
        "icchantika"   absolutely   can   not   attain   the In other words, the only "aatyantika" and
        "agotrec-chantika"  are absolutely  without becoming
        the buddhas.


        (B) The "agotra" in YCBh
            Now we come back to the PPHV, in which  Kuei-chi
        mentions  the  "atyantika"  (阿顛底迦  )as the fifth
        Nature without explaining  not only the other two of
        "icchantiaka"  and  "an-icchantika",  but  also  the
        "atyantika"   itself.   Why   does   he   omit   the
        "icchantiaka"  and "an-icchantik"  in this  PPHV? As
        concerning  this  problem, in the  next  step  it is
        better for us to research  the theories  of BSBh = =
        Bodhisattvabhumi (菩薩地 )of YCBh = Yogaacaarabhuumi
        (瑜迦師地論  )to find  out its relation  with  PPHV,
        because   Kuei-chi   borrows   many   theories    of
        bodhisattvacaryaa   (菩薩行   ) from  BSBh  for  the
        explanations    of   Practicing   PP,   the   Second
        "Citta-uttaapana" (第二練磨心 )in PPHV.
            It is a well-known  fact that the various  names
        and theories of "gotras" and "pudgalas"  are broadly
        explicated  in YCBh vols.  21,37, 52, 57, 67 without
        mentioning  the  names  and  theories  of  the  Five
        Natures altogether  in its one place.  But genearlly
        speaking, the theories  of Five Natures  are treated
        in YCBh, 12  therefore, I find  the  four  names  of
        "pudgalas"  connecting  with  three  gotras  and one
        "agotra" in YCBh vol.37 as follows. 13
        (1) "'sraavaka-gotra.h   'sraavaka-yane   (the   one
            possessing  the "'sraavaka"  (listener)'s gotra,
            聲聞種姓, in the  vehicle  of 'sraavaka, [should
            be natured as his pudgala]. ( 住聲聞種姓, 於聲聞
            乘應可成熟補特伽羅 ).
        (2) "pratyeka-buddha-gotra.h   pratyekabuddha-yaane"
            (the   one   possessing   the   "pratyekabuddha"
            (self-enlightened  one) 's gotra  in vehicle  of
            praty-eka-buddha,  [should  be  matured  as  his
            pudgala] (住獨覺種姓, 於獨覺乘應可成補特伽羅 )
        (3) "Buddhagotra  mahaayane paripacayitavya.h"  (the
            one  possessing   the  Buddha's   gotra  in  the
            mahaayana, should be matured [as his pudgala]  (
            住佛種姓, 於發上乘應可成熟補特伽羅 )
        (4) "agotrastho   'pi   pudgala.h   sugati-gamanaaya
            paripaacayitavyo  bhavati"  (and the pudgala who
            is occupied  with "agotra"  for going  into  the
            good path (sugati, 善趣 ), should be matured [as
            his pudgala] (住無種姓, 於住善趣應成補特伽羅 )
            The above four kinds of pudgalas belong to No.2
        "paripaacya  [pudgala]" (the matured man) of the Six
        "paripaakaa.h", 14 the state of


        matured  living  bings  (sattva-paripaaka-sthaana) ,
        which is the No.5 state of the Seven Studing  States
        15  in the  "svaparaartha"  (自他利  )'s section  of
        BSBh.  From which Kuei-chi  borrows the theories  of
        bodhisattvacaryaa  (菩薩行  ) in PPHV  for explaning
        the  broad  practices  of the  bodhisattvacaryaa, in
        which   we  find   that   its  many   theories   are
        reconstruted  by Kuei-chi.  For  example, the  seven
        states   are  contracted   into  five  states:  No.5
        "sattvaparipaaka"  is changed  to no.1 state  of the
        five states, and named " so-hua-chu "  ( 所化處, the
        state of the men taught).  For this Kuei-chi  simply
        mentions the following statements. 16
            "The three  vehicles  (三乘 ), undetermined  one
            (anityata,   不定   ) and   the   absolute   one
            (aatyantika,  阿顛底迦  ) ,  should  be  matured
            according to the differences of their "gotras" (
            種姓差別如應成熟 )."
            The above  names  of the Five  Natures  are also
        reconstructed names from the four pudgalas of BSBh (
        菩薩地 ),according  to the Five  Natures  of LAS and
        MSA. That is to say that Kuei-chi put the "anityata"
        between  No.3  17  "buddha-gotra-pudgala"  and  No.4
        "agotrastha-pudgala", In addition he not only chages
        No.4 "agotra"  to "aatyantika", but also takes  away
        the name  of No.3, combines  it with Nos.  1.2.  and
        name "three vehicles"  without any explanation about
        these five natures.
            Now let us see the following statements  of BSBh
        for understanding the meanings of "agotra".
        A."agotra-stha.h  pudgalo  gotre  'sati cittopade'pi
          yatna-samaa'sraye  satyabhavya's  caanuttaraayaa.h
          samyaksa^mbodheh paripuuraye." 18 (When the person
          existing  without  "gotra"  does  not live  in the
          "gotra", he is unable  in the  completion  of  the
          unsurpassed and perfect enlightenment, even though
          he produces intention  and makes the effort as the
        B."asati tu gotre sarva^m sarvathaa  bodher
          apraptir   eva   veditavya"   19  (It  should   be
          understand  that if there  is no gotra, there will
          be always  without  getting  bodhi all entirelly).
            The above  statements  tell us that the "agotra"
        in    BSBh     is    only     the     meaning     of
        ""  of MSA  without  the
        meanings of two types of "icchantika"  of LAS.  This
        is  why  Kuei-chi   changes  the  "agotra"  to   the
        aatyantika", since  he  likes  to  accord  with  the
        theories  of YCBh.  But the problem  of why he omits
        the  explanations  of icchamita"  and an-icchantimas
        (the in PPHV in not


        yet resolved.

        II. The Second Problem of "aatyantika"

            If Kuei-chi forgets the meanings of "icchantika"
        and "an-icchantika" (the,
        and    does    not   support    the   theories    of
        Bodhisattvecc.hantika  (菩薩闡底  ), why does  he in
        PPHV  claim  that  the "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"
        has completed Enlightenment as follows? 20
            "The   Avalokite'svara    first   produces   the
            intention  from the ancient time, and then makes
            up the  excellent  mind  in the  "avidya"  shell
            accompanied  with defilements  (sa^mkle'sa).  He
            had abandoned  his wealth  and life  for seeking
            the Buddha-praj~naa  through the highest effort,
            and   finally   he  had   gotten   the   perfect
            Enlightenment.  Therefore, I  should  encourtage
            myself  and do more practices., It means  that I
            should not despite myself and produce the shrunk
            The above statement  in the PPHV belongs  to the
        First  "cittauttaapana"  (第一練磨心  ), one  of the
        Three   "citta-uttaapanaas"   (三練磨心   ) ,  whose
        technical  terms  are borrowed  by Kuei-chi  from MS
        Mahaayaanasa^mgraha  (攝大乘論  ),21 but he also has
        reconstructed  its theories  in the PPHV.  Therefore
        the "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva" in the above First
        "citta-uttaapana"  represents  not  only  the living
        being  (有情眾生  )mentioning  in MS, but  also  the
        "purusa-[damya-saarathi]"  ([ 調御丈夫  ])mentioning
        in    VMSVy    [s-k]22.    It   means    that    the
        "avalokite'svara-bodhisattva  not  only  has already
        attained   the   perfect   enlightenment    as   the
        "", one  of  the  Ten  Buddha'
        Synonyms, 23 but  also  always  lives  in this  evil
        world  to carry  out the welfare  works  for all the
        living beings by the power of his vow stemming  from
        his great compassion.  These theories  are mentioned
        in his commentary of Saddharma-p.u.n.dariikaa-suutra
        (法華玄贊 ), 24 in which Samantabhadra-[bodhisattva]
        (普賢  [ 菩薩 ])also  is mentioned.  And  the  other
        famous     Mu~nju'srii-bodhisattva   (文殊菩薩   )'s
        theories  are  introduced   in  Tun-lun  (遁倫  ) 's
        commentary of YCBh (瑜伽論記 ).25
            Anyway   according to the theories  of LAS,  the
        above    "avalokite'svara",   "Samantabhadra"    and
        "Mu~nju'sri" can be called the


        same  name "Bodhisattvecchantika"  (菩薩闡提  )26 or
        (大悲闡提  )27 named  by Kuei-chi.  In this case, we
        can call  that the "Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"  is
        the "" (大悲闡提 ).  But can
        we  say  that   this   "Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"
        belongs  to the  Fifth  Nature, the  "aatyantika"? I
        think, not only Kuei-chi, but also  we will say "No"
        for  its  answer, because  Kuei-chi  in VMSVy  [c-k]
        claims  that  the  Fifth  Nature,  the  "agotra"  or
        "icchantika"  has  its  own  three  kind-natures, in
        which  the  "Mahaakaru.necchantika"  and "atyantika"
        are  involved.  Therefore, it can be said  that  the
        only ""  does not belong  to
        "aatyantika", and only  "aatyantika"  also  can  not
        represent  the  Fifth  Nature, as according  to  the
        theories of Kuei-chi's VMSVy [c-k].

        III. The Third Problem of "aatyantika"

            If Kuei-chi holds that the "agotra"  is only the
        "aatyantika"(阿顛底迦)or the"pi-ching-wu-chung-hsing"
        (畢竟無種姓, "atyantagotra", or "aatyantikaagotra"),
        why does he in PPHV Not only explains  that the both
        Eighth  Vij~naana  and  Seventh  Vij~naana  are good
        natures,  but   also   selects   the   theories   of
        "tathagata-garbha" (如來藏 )and "Buddha-gotra" (佛性
        )for the explanation  of the nature  of "Chien-hsing
        cheng-hsing"   (遣相證性   ) ,  one   of  the   Five
        Vij~naanavaada-perceptions (五重唯識觀 )?
            As concerning  the above problem, let us see the
        following    table    which   contains    Kuei-chi's
        explanations  of both  vij~naanas.  (Please  see the
        next paper.
        The new important  theories  in above  table  are as
        (1) Both "citta" (心 )= Eighth vij~naana and "manas"
            (意 )= Seventh vij~naana are possessing the good
            characters  or natures, which are different from
            the  indeterminate  (avyak.rta,  無記  ) natures
            mentioning in Tri^m'sikaa and VMS etc. 28
        (2) Both vij~nanas, though separately  having  their
            won three vij~naanas in three states, have close
        (3) The "aadaanavij~naana"  in the thired  state  is
            not only higher  and longer  in activities  than
            "aalayavij~naana"  and  "vipaakavij~naana",  but
            also  the  object  of the "manas"  in the  third
            state, which is different  from the impure  mind
            (kli.s.ta-manas, 染污意 )mentioning in the texts


        390.gif (54373 bytes)


        MSVy[v-p], 29 轉識論 translated by Paramaartha.
            At any rate Kuei-chi  claims  that  both  Eighth
        Vij~naana  an  Seventh  Vij~naana  in the  state  of
        supreme  truth  (paramaartha-satya, 勝義諦 )are good
        and pure natures.  This is why Kuei-chi  selects the
        theories  of the pure mind  "suunyataa", "tathataa",
        "tathaagata-garbha." and "buddha-gotra" etc. for the
        explanation  of  the  nature  of "chien-hsiang-chen-
        hsing"  (遣相證性 ), one of the Five vij~naanavaada-
        perceptions(  五重唯識觀  ) .In  this  case,  it  is
        necessary  to study the meanings  of "gotra" because
        it has connection with "agotra".
            It is a well-known fact that the dictionaries of
        Sanskrit  tell  us that  "gotra"  has  such  various
        meanings  of  "protection   for  cows",  "cow-shed",
        "family",  "race",  "lineage",  "gesns",    "basis",
        "species", "cause"  and "seed" etc.30  Among them we
        find the term "gotra-bhuu" (man of lineage) is first
        introduced in the Early buddhist Canon. The "gotraa"
        has the same meanings of "va^m'sa" (系統 )and "kula"
        (家  ),  and  then  this  "gotra"  is  used  as  the
        "aaryagotra"   (聖人家系  ) in  the  general  Indian
        society, but in the Mahaayaana  Buddhism, it is used
        as "gotrastha", "gotra-bhuumi" or "tathaagata-gotra"
        mentioned  by  Prof.  Takasaki  Jikido.31
            Generally  speaking  this "gotra" is treated  in
        almost all of the mahaayaana-suutras32  with various
        meanings.  Kuei-chi seems to respect the theories of
        YCBh, from  which  he quotes  the  famous  two  kind
        gotras  of  "prak.rtistha"  (being  in the  original
        state,  本性住  )and  "samudaaniita"  (acquired,  or
        brought together [by perfuming], 習所成 )in PPHV for
        explaining   that   the  one  who  owns  these   two
        mahaayaana  "gotras"can  practice the five staged of
        the Yogaacaara-vij~naanavaada's path.33
            These two famous "gotras"  are already quoted in
        VMS.  If we compare  the explanations  of VMS34 with
        VMSVy [s-k]  and PPHV, we can find that Kuei-Chi  in
        PPHV explains the "prak.rtistha-gotra" (本性住種性 )
        to mean that the "prak.rti"  (本性 )dwelling  in the
        Muulavij~naana ( 位本識  ) can produce the undefiled
        [dharma] (無漏[法]).In other  words  this "undefiled
        [dharma]  (無漏  [  法  ]) .  In  other  words  this
        "undefiled  [dharma]  (無漏  [ 法 ] is  produced  by
        "prakrti",  the  undefiled  bija  ( 無漏種  ), which
        dwells in the Muulavij~naana  (  住本識 [ 第八識 ]).
        This explanation  is different from that explanation
        of " 依附本識 " (depending on the Muula-vij~naana  )
        meantioned in VMS. Therefore Kuichi in his VMSVy
        [s-k]  only  explains  that " 無漏種無始自成  " (the
               undefiled biija has completed itself from the
               beginningless-time) without commen-


        ting on the " 依附本識 ", But in his explanations of
        the "samudaaniita-gotra" (習所成種性 ), we find " 令
        無漏舊種增長 " (to cause the old undefiled  biija to
        grow). If the old undefiled biija of them means both
        the primary  undefiled  biija  of the "prak.rtistha"
        and    secondary    underfiled    biija    of    the
        "samudaaniita",  then  it  may  be  said   the  good
        theories  for the people to be buddhas, because they
        can  naturally   possess  the  pure  biija,  and  in
        addition they always practice the bodhisattva's path
        which causes their pure biijas to grow.  This is why
        the  "gotra"   is  called   "biija",  "dhaatu"   and
        "prakrti" in BSbh and 'Sraavaka-bhuumi. 35
            In  this  case, the  opposite  name  of "agotra"
        means   "without-bija",  or   without-dhatu"   etc.,
        therefore  the people  live in "agotra"  means  that
        they  absolutly   can  not  become  buddhas.   These
        "agotra"'s  theories  of Indian vij~naanavaada  were
        not easily accepted  by the Chinese buddhist  during
        the  Tang  Dynasty.  It  is a well-known  fact  that
        before   Hsuen-tsang   (玄奘  ) went  to  India  for
        researching Buddhsim, there were many buddhist texts
        holding    the    theories    of   the   "ekayaana",
        " buddha-dhaatu ( or Gotra ) " (佛 性), "tathaagata-
        garbha"  (如來藏 ), "amala-vij~naana"  (阿摩羅識  ),
        such  as  (大般涅槃經  )and
        saddhar-mapu.ndariika-suutra  (  妙法蓮華經    )   ,
        Avata^msaka-suutra (華嚴經 )Ta-cheng-chi-hsin-lun  (
        大乘起信論 )etc are translated and studied by Indian
        and  Chinese  buddhist  scholars.  Therefore,  after
        Hsuen-tsang  had completed his studies in India, and
        before he returned to China, he wished to delete the
        theory  of "agotra"  from  MAS  etc., but  his Great
        Teach  'Silabhadra  ( 戒賢, A.D.529-645 ) would  not
        permit this.  This episode was mentioned by Tun-lun(
        遁倫 )in his commentary of YCBH.36
            From the above statements,I think that  not only
        Hsuen-tsang, but also Kuei-chi, the Chinese Buddhist
        Scholars, understand  that Chinese buddhists wish to
        become  the  buddhas,  and  like  to  research   the
        buddhist suutras or 'saastras which teach the people
        how to become  the Buddhas.  Therefore, Kuei-chi  in
        PPHV  has  his  special  theories  of not  noly  the
        Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva    appearing    as   the,  but  also   both   Eighth
        Vij~naana  and  Seventh  Vij~naana  possessing  good
        natures,  which   are  different   from   YCBh   and
        Tri^m'sika  etc.  For these reasons, I would like to
        say  that  it is a problem  for Kuei-ch  ino put the
        "atyantika"  as the Fifth Nature in PPH stead of the
        Fourth Pudgala "agotra" in YCBh.


        IV Conclusion

            The PPH (心經 )is not the Vij~naanakaana's text,
        but Kuei-chi in his PPHV explains  its meanings with
        the Vij~naanavaada's  theories by means of borrowing
        the  theories   from  YCBh  and  MSA  et.,  He  also
        reconstructs  their theories as his new theories, in
        which the "aatyantika"  appesrs  in PPHVas the Fifth
        Nature implicating three problems.
            As concering  the First Prolem  of why" Kuei-chi
        omits the "icchantika" and "an-icchantid,LA in PPHV,
        I deal with the theories of "agotra"  in LAS and MSA
        for the purpose  of proving  that Kuei-chei  selects
        not  only  the two  "icchantikas"  of LAS  for  this
        "icchantika"   and  "anicchantika",  but  also   the
        ""  (畢竟無涅槃法 )of MSA
        for his "aatyantika", the Fifth  Nature.Although  he
        selects the above three to make his new theories  of
        "agotra",   he   on   the   other   hand,   in   his
        VMSVY[c-k]mentions  that "icchantiio"  als has three
        kinds   of   (1)   "breaking    good   roots"    (2)
        "Mahaakaru.necchantika" (大悲闡提 )and (3) "agotra",
        of these  the  first  two will  finally  attain  the,  but  only  the  third  "aattyantika"  of
        "agotra" or "agotra" of "icchantika"  absolutely can
        not attain nirvaana.
            Because  of the "aatyantika", the Fares  Nature,
        and the other four natures  (three vehicles  and one
        "anityata") appearing in PPHV have connections  with
        YCBH, therefore  I deal  with  the theories of  four
        "gotras'  in the BSBh, the YCBH  VOL.37.  Which  are
        reconstructed  by Kuei-chi, in which I find that, in
        PPHV, not  only  the "anityata"  is an adittion, but
        also   the  "aatyantika"   is  a  substitution   for
        "agotra",the true meaning of "
        dharma".  Anyway  the problem of why Kuei-chi  omits
        the other two "icchantikas"(impling the Mahaakaruna-
        bodhisattva) in PPHV is not yet resolvd.
            The Sekand problem is that, if Kuei-chi does not
        support the theories  of "",
        why     does     he    claim   in   PPHV        that
        "Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva"      has     completed
        Enlightenment? Regarding  this problem, I deal  with
        the   theories   of,  the
        Avalokite'svara, Samantabhadra  and  Munju'si   from
        PPHV and Saddharmapu.ndariika's commentary (法華玄贊
        )etc....Therefore  it can be said that Kuei-chi  has
        the theories of "".  In this


        case, the only  "mahaakaruna-bodhi-satttr"a may  not
        belong  to the  "aatyantika", and  only " atyantika"
        also cannot represent the fifth Nature, the "agotra"
        of "icchantika".
            The  Third  Problem  is that, if Kuei-chi  holds
        that "agotra" is only the "atyantaagotra"  (畢竟無種
        姓 ), why does  he in PPHV, not  only  explain  that
        both  8th and 7th vij~naanas  are good  natures, but
        also      select      the     "buddhagotra"      and
        "tathaagata-garbha"  for  the  explantions   of  the
        nature of "chien-hsiang-cheng-hsing" (遣相證性) ? To
        this problem, I frist  make a comparative  table for
        undersanding   that  both  8th  Vij~naanas   and 7th
        Vij~naana have good natures in PPHV.
            Next compare  the meanings  of two famous gotras
        of  "prakrtistha"  and  "samudaaniita",  quoted from
        YCBH  in the  texts  of PPHV, VMS, and  VMSVy.  From
        which I find that Kuei-chi  in PPHV permits the pure
        biija of "prak.rtistha"  to dwell in muulavij~naana.
        And this theory, perhaps, can prove tha Kuei-chi  in
        PPHV      does      not     hold      the     Indian
        "",  therefore   I would
        consider   it  a  problem  for  Kuei-chi   puts  the
        "aatyantika" as the Fifth Nature in PPHV.
            In  the  end  of  this conclution, I  offer  the
        following  two  keys  for  us  to  solve  the  above
        (1) The"aatyantika"can connect with either  "agotra"
            or "gotra".  The first term "aatyantikaagotra" (
            畢竟無種姓  ) ,  representing   the third   name
            "aatyantika"  of  the  three  "icchantikas"   or
            "agotras", means that the one who absolutely has
            no  nature  to  be  a  Buddha;  the latter  term
            "aatyantika-gotra" (畢竟種姓 ), representing the
            second name "an-icchantika" (or Mahaakaru.necch-
            antika,   大悲闡提   )  of  three " agotras " or
            "icchantikas", means that the one who absolutely
            has  nature  to   be  a   Buddha. Therefore, the
            "aatyantika" in the PPHV has above two meanings.
        (2) The " 顛 " of " aatyantika " ( 阿顛底迦 ) can be
            interpreted  as  a  misprint  of the "  闡  " of
            "an-icchantika" (阿闡提迦 ), because both the "(
            阿顛底迦 )" and " 阿闡提迦 " belong to the Fifth
            Nature  of FND in VMSVy  [c-k] (樞要), the later
            term " 阿闡提迦 ", especially not only"means the
            Mahaakaru.nabodhisattva,   but  also  represents
            the Avalokite'svara-bodhisattva (觀自在菩薩)  in
            Aside   from  these  two  keys,  should   it  be
            suggested  that the "agotra" be retrieved as the
            Fifth  nature, I, of course, would also   accept
            this suggestion, because  the "agotra"  contains
            "icchantika","an-icchantikahicl and "aatyantika",
            caimed  by Kuei-chi in his VMSVY [c-k].


            (This  pape was read at the Ninth Conference  of
        the International  Association  of buddhist Studies,
        The National  Central  Library, Taipei, Republic  of
        China, July 26-28, 1989).


        1. The theories of Four Aspects (四分說); the  Three
           Vehicles and Five Dstinctive  Natures( 三性, 五種
           分別 );  the Theories of Eight Vij~naanas(八識說)
           ); the Three Categories's Objects (三類境 );  the
           Five Vij~naanavada's  Perceptions  (五重唯識觀).
           The above theories are consicered  the  important
           Chinese Vij~naanavadas.
        2. VMS  [h]  Vij~naptimaatrataasiddhi   成唯識論  ),
           TTP, 31, p.8a-b.
        3. VMSVy  [s] (成唯識論述記  ), TTP, fpp.2  230a, Of
           them  the theories  of LAS, MAS  and YCBh, I will
           explain  in the pp.3-7  of this paper.  The other
           texts  are: (1) 無上依經  (TTP.16, pp.470b, 471b)
           mentions  the Four Persons (icchantika, tiirthaka
           (外道  ) ,  'sraavaka,  pratyekabuddha)  and  the
           bodhisattva who possesses the supreme quality and
           practices  the Mahaayana.(2) Mahaa-PP  (大般若  )
           vol.  593(  TTP,  7,  p.1066a-b),  in  which  the
           "agotra"  is  omitted.   These  passage  of  Four
           Persons are quoted by Kuei-chi in his VMSVy[c-k](
           成唯識論掌中樞要, TTP,.43 p.610b), I-lin-chang  (
           義林章, TTP, 45, p.264c) and Fa-fua-shin-tsan (法
           華玄贊,   TTP,   34,    p.656b-c    )   .     (3)
           Suvikraanta-vikrami-parip.rccha-PP(SVPPP,  善勇猛
           般若經, or 2,500 頌般若經 )ed. By Hikata,Ryusho (
           千潟龍祥  ), Committee  of Commemoration  Program
           for Dr.Hikata's  Retirement  from  Professorship,
           Kiushu University, Japan, 1958, pp.4-5. According
           to the theory of Dr.  Hikata, this sanskrit  text
           of SVPPP are corresponding to the Vols., 593-600(
           第 16  會 )  of Mahaa-pp ( TTP, 7, pp.1065-1110).
           Therefore  I select the passages of Four  Persons
           from the above two text as follows:
        (A) "ye satvkaa niyataa.h  'sravakayaane bhavi.syanti
           te  'sruutvaa   k.sipram   anaasravaam   bhuumi^m
           saaksaatkarisyanti." (若有情類於聲聞乘性決定者聞
           此法已速能證得無漏地 ).
        (B) "ye pratyekabuddhayaane  niyataa bhavi.syanti,te
            ksipra^m pratyeka-buddhayaanena  niryaa.syanti."
            (若有情類於獨覺乘性決定者, [ 聞此法已 ] 速依自乘
            出離 ).
        (C) "ye nuttaraa^m samyaksambodhi^m  samprasthitaas,
            te     k.sipram    anuttaraa^m   samyaksambodhim
            abhisambhotsyante."  ( 若有情類無上 [ 乘性決定 ]
            者, [ 聞此法已 ]  速證無上正等菩提) ( 據上述梵文
            是: 趣於無上正覺者 )
        (D) "ye caanavakraanta-samyaktva-niyaama  antiyataas
            tis.rsu, te'srutva' nut-


            taraayam samyaksambodhau cittam utpaadayisyanti."
            (若有情類雖未入正性離生,而於 [三乘]不定者,聞此法
            己皆發正等覺心 ")
                 From the above camparisions, we  find  that
           there is no "gotra"(  性 )in SVPPP, the "sattvas"
           (有情類 )in (B), (C), (D) and the "'srutvaa " (聞
           [  此法已  ])in  (B),  (C)  are  omitted  in  the
           sanskrit  text.   And  in  (C)  the  "ye'nuttaram
           samyaksambodhi^m samprasthitas" mean 趣於無上正等
           菩提者  ", and  in (D) the  "  bhumisu
           means" 於三地 ". pl1,
        4. VMSVy [c-k],( 樞要 )TTP,43,pp.  610-611, Fukaura,
           Seibun  ( 深浦正文  ):  [  唯識學研究] 永田文昌堂
           Kyoto, 1954, Vol.2. PP.634-646.
        5. PPHV (心經幽贊 ), TTP, 33, p.527c. Pesase see the
           Appendix of this paper.
        6. Kuei-chi  explains three "citta-uttaapanas" (三練
           磨心 ) ,  in PPHV,  of which  the Second " citta-
           uttaapana"(   第二練磨心  )  the  very  important
           bodhisattvacaryaa  (菩薩行  )of PP are  mentioned
           for  the  explanations  of  Practicing  PP in the
           PPHV.  Please see my articles: " 般若波羅磨多心經
           幽贊ズれんミ三練磨心ズコゆサ    "   Indian    and
           buddhist Studies (Indogaku bukkyogaku-kenkyu.  印
           度學佛教學研究  ),  Tokyo, 1989,  vol.  37,  No.2
           pp.806-813 and " 如何成佛一以窺基的三練磨心為中心
           ]- 『方東美先生的哲學』國際方東美哲學研討會執行委
           員會、  幼獅公司、  台北、  民國78年7 月 pp. 338,
        7. VMSVY  [c-k](  樞要  ), TTP, 43, pp.610 , and  in
           p.612, Kuei-chi  quotes ten statements  from five
           texts (1)" 涅槃經 " = TTP.12.pp431b, 518a, 554a-b
           569a, 574b-c, 580b.(2).  " 菩薩地持經 " or " 菩薩
           善戒經 "-- TTP, 30 pp.88a, 962c. (3) " 勝鬘經 " =
           TTP, 12.  P218b.  (4) " 大乘莊嚴經論 " = TTP, 31.
           P595a.  (5)" 金剛般若論  " = TTP, 25,p.794b-c) to
           prove that there are the theories  of "agota"  in
           those texts.  cf.Fukihara, Siosin (富貴原章信  ):
           [ 中國日本, 佛性思想史 ]Kokusio Kankokai ( 國書刊
           行會 ), Tokyo, 1988, pp. 184-191
        8. LAS = La~nkaavatara-suutra, ed. By Bunyiu Nanjio,
           Otani  Univ.   (大谷大學  ) Koyto,  1956,  second
           edition.  PP 16: (1) LAS [c-b]  (入楞伽經十一卷本
           ) tran.  By  Bodhiruci  (菩提流支  )  p.527b  (2)
           LAS[c-g] 楞伽阿跋多羅寶經 ) tran.  By Guna-bhadra
           (求那跋陀羅  ) p.486(3) LAS  [c-s]  (大乘入楞伽經
           )tran.  by  Siksaananda(  實叉難陀  )p.597c.  One
           Japanese  text  is [ 梵文和譯: 入楞伽經  ]
           Yasui,  Kosai  (安井廣濟  ) Fozuokan  (  波藝  ])
           Kyoto, 1976.pp59-60.
        9. MSA = Mahaayanasutrala.nkaara, edite par sylvain
           levi (Bibiotheque  de Ecole des Hautes Etudes, t
           159), Paris 1907 pp.12-13 MSA[c-p] ( 大乘莊嚴經論
           )tran.  by Prabhaakarmita  ( 波羅頗迦羅蜜多 )TTP.
           31, p.595a. Kue-chi


           only  summarizes  the main theories of LAS in his
           VMSVy [c-k].  Uihakujiu (宇井伯壽 ); 大乘莊嚴經論
           研究 lwonami (岩波 )Tokyo, 1961, p.78
        10. " kaalaaap arinirvana-dharma", to which Kuei-chi
           in his VMSVy [c-k] p.610 meantions:[ 此中時邊廣云
           暫時, 梵云涅迦羅阿波利暱縛喃達磨, 涅者暫也  ]. Of
           which  the  [  暫 ](temporary), its  sanskrit  is
           "alpa" or "acira" cf. DES = Dectionary of English
           and Sanskrit. ed. By M.  Monier Williams, Motilal
           Banarsidass, Delhi, 1964, second  ed. p. 797, But
           Kuei-chi  says:[ 涅者暫也 ], of which [ 涅 ](nir)
           does not mean the "temporary". Fukihara 富貴原 in
           his 中國日本佛性思想史, p. 189  explains that  
           (tat 暫 )  etc. The other three (b) (c) and (d)'s
           Chinese translations are according to MAS [c-p]
        11. VMSVy[c-k]  TTP  43,  p.611a, in which  Kuei-chi
           (1) "Mahaaaprunecchantika"  is that in which  the
               cause  is  complete, but  its  result  is not
               complete (因成果不成謂大悲闡提 )
           (2) "Sagotra-ku'salamuulotsargecchantika" is that
               in  which  the result  is  complate, but  its
               cause is not complete (果成因不成, 謂有性斷善
               闡提 )
           (3) "agotrecchantika,  nityadviyaana" are that in
               which  both  causes   and   results  are  not
               complete (因果俱不成謂無性闡提二乘定性)
           (4) "Abhiamkabuddha"     who  possesses       the
               samaropita-mahaapraj~naa and ku'salamuuaanut-
               sarga  is  that  in  which  both  cause   and
               result are complete.(  因果俱成,謂大智增上,不
               斷善根而成佛者 )
        12. cf. Fuawra, Seibun (深浦正文): [唯識學研究] vo.2
            永田文昌堂 Kyoto, 1954, p.636  VMSVy [s-k] VMSVy
            [c-k] TTP 43, PP.304, 610
        13. Yogaacaeca-bhuumi  (瑜伽師地論, 玄奘譯 100 卷 ),
            from its vols.35-50 are named Bodhisattva-bhuumi
            section  (菩薩地品 ).
            BSBh =bodhisattvabhumi,( being the XVth  Section
            of   Asangapada's   Yogacaarabhuumi ).  Ed.   By
            Nalinaksha Dutt, K.P.
            Jayaswal  Research Institute, Patnapr  66.  P.55
            BSBh [c-h] TTP 30, p.496c
        14. BSBh   p55  "paripaaka.h   samaasatah,   sadbhir
            aakarair veditavyah svabhavato' pi.." BSBh [c-h]
            TTP 30  p.496b  ( 當知成熟略有六種:(一) 成熟自性
            (2) 所成熟補特伽羅 (3) 成熟差別 (4) 成熟方便 (5)
            能成熟補特伽羅  (6) 已成熟補特伽羅
        15. BSBh,  p.15  "sapta-sthaanaani---, (1) svaartha,
            (2) parartha, (3) tattvaartha, (4) prabhava, (5)
            sattvaparipaaka,(6)aatmano buddhadharma-paripaaka,
            (7) anuttara ca samyaksa^mbodhah.
            BSBh [c-h] TTP 30  p.482b 七學處 (1) 自利處  (2)
            利他處  (3)  真實義處 (4)  威力處 (5) 成熟有情處
            (6) 成熟自佛法處 (7).無上正等菩提處 . Please see
            the Appendix of this paper.


        16. PPHV TTP 33, p.527c
        17. MPP = Mahaapraj~naaparamita-suutra  ( 大般若經 )
            TTP 7 p.1066, in  which  the  name  of   No.3 is
            named anuttara-yaana-gotra ( 無上乘性 ) which has
            the same meaning of "buddha-gotra"; the name of
            No.4 "anityata" (不定 )also appears in MMP.
        18. BSBh p.1  L.16-18 BSBh [c-h] TTp30,  p.478c
        19. BSBh p7. L.23-24 BSBh [c-h] TTP 30, p.480b
        20. PPHV TTP 33, p.524b [ 彼觀自在, 昔初發意, 具諸煩
            惱, 於無明殼, 建立勝心, 捨身命財, 求佛智慧, 興大
            勇猛, 已成等覺, 我亦應爾, 勵已增修, 不應自輕, 而
            生退屈 ]
        21. MS  [c-h1, (攝大乘論  )TTP  31, p.142a.  Sasaki,
            Getzshio (佐佐木月樵 );  漢譯四本對照攝大乘論  ]
            日本佛書刊行會 Tokyo 昭和 34, p.54
        22. VMSVY.[c-k] TTP43, p.564b 彼既丈夫, 我亦爾, 不應
        23. The Ten Buddha'Synonyms are : (1) Tathaagata (如
            來 ),(2)arhat( 阿羅漢 ),(3) samyaksa^mbuddha (正
            遍知), (4) vidyaa-carana-sa^mpanna (明行足), (5)
           sugata (善逝 ), (6) lokavid (世間解),(7) anuttara
           (無上師 ),(8) puru.sadamya-sarathi  ( 調御丈夫 ),
           (9) 'Saast.r( 天人師),(10)buddha-bhagavat (佛世尊
           )cf.Mogitzuki, (望月 ).  佛教大辭典) vol.5,Tokyo,
           1936, p.4437, [  雜阿含經  ],vol.2, TTP 2, p.141c
           Okihara,  unrai(  荻原雲來  )  漢譯對照梵和大辭典
           Suzuki  Foundation  (鈴木學術財團  ),Tokyo  1979,
           p.796.The  statements  of MS, VMSVy [s-k] , VMSVy
           [c-k] and PPHV are mentioned im my article 般若波
           羅蜜多心經幽贊ズれんミ三練磨心ズコゅサ Journal of
           Indian and Buddhist Studies (Indogaku, Bukhyogaku
           Kenkyu,   印度學佛教學研究   )   vol.37    Tokyo,
        24. Fa-fua-shin-tsan (法華玄贊 ),TTP 34,P. 848c 觀音
            久已成佛, 不捨菩薩行, 故示為菩薩,which is quoted
            in 成唯識論本文抄 TTP 65, p.415b
            The statements of Samanbhadra are: 驗此普賢,久己
            成佛, 示現為菩薩 TTP 34, p.852c.  cf. 楠渟澄: 日
            本唯識思想ソ研究一大悲闡提成, 不成說ソ展開 -----
            山崎教授定年紀念 : 唯識思想ソ研究 pp. 22-32 百華
            苑出版Kyoto, 1987
        25. YCBHVy[c-k] (瑜伽論記) TTP, 42, p.615a
        26. LAS, p-66, LAS [c-g] TTP, 16, p.487c,LAS [c-b],
            p.527b, LAS [c-s], p.597c
        27. VMSVy en-k] TTP 43, pp.610-611, Plese  see  note
            11 of this paper.
        28. Tri^m'sika, pp.13,23,24, VMS TTP31,  pp.7, 9, 60
        29. VMSVy [v-p] (攝大乘論識  ) TTP 31, p.158  轉識論
            TTP 31.pp. 61c, 62a
        30. SED  = Sanskrit-English  Dictionary, ed.  By Sir
            Monier Monier-williams, Oxfort, 1960 p.364.


            Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and dictionary,
            ed. by   F.Edgerton, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi,
            1970, p.216
        31. Takasaki Jikido (高崎直道): 如來藏思想歡ソ形成,
            春秋社, Tokyo, pp.751-4.  And "An Introduction
            to  Buddhism", translated by Rolf W.Giebel. The
            Toho Gakkai, Tokyo, p.232.
        32. Please see the Table [2] [如來藏說關係諸概念展開
            表 ] in Takasaki's book: 如來藏思想ソ形成  p.761
        33. PPHV TTP.33, p.525a  BSBh p.2 L.4-7  YCBh TTP 30
        34. (A) VMS TTP31, p.48b, (b)  VMSVy  [s-k] TTP  43,
            p.565a, (c) PPHV, TTP 33 p.525a
            (A) 無始來依附本識, 法爾所得無漏法因
            (B) 未聞正法, 但無漏種無始自成, 不會重習令其增長
                名本種姓, 性者體也, 姓者類也
            (C) 本性住種姓,謂住本識,能生無漏,本性功能
            cf. Fukawa依(深浦) :[唯識學研究]
            Vo.2 PP. 658-659.
        35. BSBh   p.2   L.8-9  BSBh  [c-h]  TTP 30   p.478c
            'Sraavakabhuumi  [c-h]  聲聞地  TTP 30.  P.395c.
            Analysis  of  the  'Sravakabhuumi Manuscrpt,  by
            Alex  Wayman  University of  California a Press,
            Berkeley, 1961 p.59
        36. YCBhVY [c-t] =瑜伽論記 TTP 42. P.615 a-b

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        如下說明其三問題。關於第一問題 -- 窺基在「心經幽贊」
        為何省略「一闡提迦」及「阿闡底迦」 (大悲菩提闡) ? 為
        無種姓」含有三種 (一闡提迦、阿闡提迦、阿顛底迦 )的來
        源。關於第二問題 -- 如果窺基不支持大悲菩薩闡提,為何
        菩薩。關於第三問題 -- 如果窺基堅持「無種姓」唯是「阿
        顛底迦 (畢竟 )無種姓」,為何他在「心經幽贊」主張第八
        中的第五遣相證性? 為此做比較表加以解釋等。而了解窺基
        ,作者提供兩想法為解決問題的要鍵: (1) 「心經幽贊」中
        的「阿顛底迦」含有兩種 "aatyantikagotra"  ( 畢竟無種
        姓 )  與 "aatyantikagotra"( 畢竟種姓 )的意思。(2) 「
        阿顛底 迦」的顛」是「阿闡底迦」的「闡」的錯字。 除了
        為窺基在 「述記」中主張它含有三種「一闡提迦、 阿闡提