A newly discovered Copperplate from Tippera [The Gunaighar Grant of Vainyagupta: The Year 188 Current (Gupta Era)]

By Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharyya
The Indian Historical Quarterly
Vol 6:1, 1930.03 pp. 45-60



p. 45 This new copperplate was found about five years ago while taking out mud from a tank by a villager at Gunaighar, a village about 18 miles to the N.W. of the town of Comilla, a mile and a half to the S. W. of P.S. Debidvar in the district of Tippera. In April, 1928, Mr. Baikunthanath Dutt, the famous antiquarian fo Trippera, coming to know of the discovery, personally went there and after some trouble took a loan of the plate for decipherment. He kindly made over the plate to me. This is a single plate, of good oopper, oblong in shape, measuring 10 inches long and 6 1/4 to 6 1/2 inches broad without a rim and is fairly thick. Including the seal it weighs below 2 seers (about 146 tolas). It is written lengthwise on both sides, but not fully on the second side. There are 23 lines on the obverse and only 8 lines on the reverse, all of about the same length (9 1/2). The plate bears in several places marks of hitting with some hard instrument, a few p. 46 letters being cub off in consequence and a number of letters almost obliterated in the middle of the last five lines on the obverse, while a few others are effaced by corrosion. Owing to these defects the inscription is difficult to be reproduced by good estampage or photograph. It is otherwise in a fairly good condition. The Royal Seal is soldered on to the plate on the left aide and is, as usual, of much lighter- coloured copper than the plate itself. It is roughly oval in shape, being 4" by 5" in diameter and has a rim all around about 3/4" broad. It is separated by two horizontal lines in the middle. The emblem occupying the top-half is the figure in relief on a slightly counter-sunk surface of a bull recumbent to tile proper right. The legend which is very much corroded rends: - Maharaja Sri Vai(nyaguptah). The date of the record is expressed in numerical symbols in the last line as '' Sam 100 80 8 possyadi 20 4 ". It can be easily referred to the Gupta Era, for the letters as well as the symbols mostly agree with those of the Gupta period. The figures for 8 and 4 are, however, unique and do not conform to any of their known forms. 8 looks like the decimal figure 9 [Buhler's Chart: Table IX (Decimal): Traverse VI] and 4 is an upright stroke with a horizontal bar projecting from the top, much like the decimal figure 8 (Ibid., Traverse V OF IX).(1) They cannot, however, be mistaken as the date is already given in clear words in lines 14-15; varttamanastasityuttara- sata-samvatsare pausa-masasya catu. rvvimsatitama- divase" i.e., on the 24th day of the month of of Pausa in the current year one hundred and eighty-eight. This use of the important word Varttamana (current) used the plate with an early Gupts Era is probably the earliest instance on record. According to Fleet (Gupta Inscriptions: Introd., p. 13O) we must interpret the years in Gupta-Valabhi ---------------------- 1 On the strength of this we would propose to correct the date of the 3rd Faridpur plate of Gopachandra to be 14 instead of 19 (Ind. Ant., 1910, p, 203). p. 47 dates as current years. This opinion has been controverted by Mr. K. B. Pathak (Ind. Ant., 1917, pp. 287ff.) who maintains with good reasons that the Gupta Era like other Indian Eras was used to denote both expired and current years. The present plate seems to lend support to the views of Mr. Pathak by providing an early use of the current year along with the instances of expired years cited in his paper. The English equivalent of the date according to the modified views of Mr. Pathak would be December 13, 506 A.D. The plate is thus the earliest record found in East Bengal-- earlier than the four Faridpur plates, with which it bears fruitful comparison, being slightly removed in place and time from them. Palaeography The letters are of the Eastern variety of the Northern Gupta script, nearly 3/16" in size, well-shaped and erect, though nob always deep-cut, and are more symmetrical than those in the Faridpur plates. The top strokes are almost wedge-shaped. The test letters h, s and I appear regularly in the Eastern variety in all the places where they occur. The letters s and s are, unlike the Faridpur plates, more clearly distinguished, tile round-shaped loop on the left side in the cerebral sibilant hanging down immediately from the top line. The loop at the side of the dental sibilant is not, however, well-developed, creating confusion on the one hand with the letter m and on the other with the letter p. In a few places the base line in both the letters m and s is found to be joined to the top line of the loft limb (e.g., asrama in 1. 4 and sima in 1. 23). The plate exhibits a rich variety int the vowel marks. The sign for a, for instance, has all the four forms found in the Bower Mss.: the superior mark occurs regularly in jna, ja and jya (l. 6) besides being used in the words dhupadi (1.6) and dharmma (1.10) and the archaic form of a curve below the right limb of the cerebral nasal occurs in ll. 7 & 20. The mark For I; is peculiar-- p. 48 an upright with a dot to the left just above the top line. Initial u and a occur several times; a and e only once each (ll. 12 and 29). Final m and final t occur only once each: the final t (line 13) is curiously formed by two top lines one above the other; while the final m (line 25) which is faint has very much the same form as in the Bower Mss. part IV (vide Introd., Table II, Traverse 26). The virama occurs only once in the last line; it is practically identical with a form of the comma as in Part VII of the Bower Mss. (Ib., Table V,Traverse 3). The plate remark- ably confirms the age of the Faridpur plates as determined by the late Mr. Pargiter from an examination of the various forms of the test letter y (Ind. Ant., 1910). For, in the present plate the earliest of the three forms of the letter--the three-pronged form with the sinistrorse curl, "preferred in Mss.'' according to Dr. Hoernle (Ib., Introd., pp. XLVIII-XLIX)--has 'been used in all the 31 places where the letter occurs uncompounded as well as in the compound ryya occurring 6 times. With the Ghugrahati (Kotwalipad) plate which must be regarded as genuine and which exhibits only the latest form of the letter wherever it occurs uncompounded, the present plate completes the series, so to speak, of East Bengal records exhibiting the different stages in the form of the letter y in course of a century (circa 500-600 A.D.). Language The LANGUAGE of the plate is Sanskrit and excepting the three usual imprecatory verses in lines 12-14, the entire record is generally in correct prose. The word ksetra is once apparently by mistake used in the masculine (line 19). The dual number in the word srutismrti (line 8) is construed with a singular participle. The word triskalam (line 5) is fully reminiscent of Buddhist usage (cf. Siksasamuc- caya, Bendall, p. 218). As regards ORTHOGRAPHYY the notable points are the doubling of consonants alter a superscript r, specially in the words caturvvimsati (line 15), svargge (line p. 49 12) and -purnne (line 19); the doubling of consonants before a subscript r as in manibhadra (line 26) and regularly in the word ksettra (except once in line 29); and the doubling of dh before y as in anuddhyato (line 1) and -rmmaddhye (line 28). A final m is conjoined with a following p in sagha nam=parigrahe (line 5) -palanam=prati (line 11) and with a following v in -dattam=va (line 13). The word vimsati is always written with the dental nasal in place of the anusvara. The avagraha is omitted e.g. in lines 3 and 14. From the point of view of Lexicography, we may note the word khata (ll. 28 and 29) meaning 'a channel.' It is evidently the original and the more archaic form of the word khatika occurring in the Khalimpur grant 1. 43 (cf. Dr. S. K. Chatterji: Origin and Development of the Bengali Language, p. 488) whence the Bengali word khadi is derived (Ibid., p. 179). Similarly the word jola (still current in several places of Bengal as juli or jola) meaning 'a water-course,' is transformed into jolaka in the Khalimpur grant (1. 43) and is probably connected with jotika also. The word nauyoga is unique and probably means a small harbour for boats. Hajjika is another peculiar word which seems to be the origin of the Bengali word haja (cf. the phrase sukha haja of popular dialects) meaning "water-logged." The word vilala is evidently derived from vila with its peculiar meaning (a large watery hollow) current in Bengal. All these words are found in the same portion of the inscription giving the boundary of low and marshy lands at the end (lines 28-30). It is interesting to notice how these words, mostly non-Sanskritic in origin, survive in modern dialects through a millenium and a half, with very little change in their form or meaning. The plate records a gift of land from the camp of victory at Kripura by Maharaja Vainyagupta made at the instance of his vassal Maharaja Rudradatta in favour of a Buddhist congregation of monks belonging to the Vaivarttika sect of the Mahayana, which was established by a Buddhist monk, Acaryya Santideva in a Vihara dedicated to Avalokitesvara. p. 50 This Vihara was then in course of construction (karyyamanaka) by the King (Rudradatta) on behalf of that Acaryya. The boundaries of the lands, divided into five plots, are given at the end of the inscription (lines 18-27), followed, besides, by the boundaries of an unmeasured tract of "low'' lands (talabhumi) of the Vihara (lines 27-29) and of another unmeasured tract of "uncultivated marshy lands belonging to the entrance of the Vihara without any tax'' (ll. 29-31). The Royal Messenger (Dutaka) is Mahasamanta Maharaja Vijayasena, who is honoured with four official titles of distinction. Two of these titles are new- "Pancadhikaranoparika- patyuparika, " which we interpret as one word i.e. President of a Board of five (District) Court Judges; and "purapaloparika" i.e, President of City Governors. The king's orders regarding the gift was communicated by the Dutaka to the three Kumaramatyas (line 17) who are consequently of a much inferior position. The writer of the grant was the Karana-Kayastha Naradatta, who was also the Minister in charge of Peace and War. The epithet Karana-Kayastha calls for a remark. The word Karana itself generally means a clerk (Kayastha) or the whole clerical staff (kayasthasamhati according to Medini, Hemacandra, etc.). It appears from the use of the interesting compound here that Karana properly denotes the caste as in the Amarakosa being included among the mixed Sudra castes (II. x. 2). The commentator Sarvananda prescribed his duty as 'lipi-lekhana-vrtti.' Kayastha, which is not found in the Amarakosa as a caste name, probably denotes the office of a clerk. The plate thus brings to light the name of a new king Maharaja Vainyagupta, who was reigning in the easternmost; corner of India four years before the earliest known date of Bhanugupta (510 A.D.) and about a quarter of a century before the great: Yasodharman, whose dominions extended up to the Lauhitya. As his appellative shows that he belongs to a distant scion of the Gupta family and he must have declared his independence during the p. 51 troubled times of Huna supermacy. He was not probably directly connected with the Imperial Guptas, who were Vaisnavas by religion, while Vainyagupta was professedly a Saiva: his emblem is identical with the Saiva emblems of the Maitraka dynasty of Valabhi and of the famous Harsavardhana. His title Maharaja shows that he was not a paramount sovereign; but neither was he a mere petty chief for, besides issuing Royal Seals in his own name, he claims to have under him one "Maharaja'' as his vassal and. another as his Dutaka. The plate is probably the earliest epigraphic record of a Brahmanic king making a gift of land to a Buddhist monastery. The Vaivarttika Sangha of the Mahayana is for the first time mentioned in this plate alone and we are quite unable to trace it in the Buddhist works. The name seems to have reference to the doctrine of Vivarta (Illusion), which found so much currency in post-Sankara Vedantism, but the term is never used in Buddhist philosophy as far as we know. The sect which was founded (as we interpret and construe the word pratipadita in the text) by Acarya Santideva had probably a very narrow local existence and did not apparently long survive its founder. Nevertheless, it is an interesting fact that in the far Eastern corner of India Mahayana Buddhism flourished under the broad patronage of both Buddhsit and Brahmanic kings fully a century before the time of Yuan Chwang and allowed one of its teachers to found a new and distinct school of monks. It is tempting to identify Acaryya Santideva of our plate with the famous Mahayana teacher of the same name who wrote the Siksasamuccaya and the Bodhicaryavatara. There is nothing however to show that they are identical. According to the Tibetan historian Taranatha the author flourished in the middle of the 7th century sud the late Dr. Bendall found nothing to contradict his statement (Siksasamuccaya, p.v). The Tibetan account of the Acaryya is substantially corroborated by a short life of the scholar in Sanskrit (Sastri's Des. p. 52 Cat. of Buddhist Mss. pp. 51-53) according to which he lived and died at Nalanda. The total measure of the granted land divided into five plots is II Patakas, comprised in one village named Kanteda daka situated in Uttara Mandala. The measurement of the different plots are also given in the plate as follows:-- Plot I ... 7 Patakas and 9 Dronavapas Plot II ... 28 " Plot III ... 23 " Plot IV ... 30 " Plot V ... 1 3/4 " ----------------------------- Total 11 Patakas. This easily works out the important equation I Pataka= 40 Dronavapas. Pataka as a measure of land is mentioned in the Asrafpur plate of Devakhadga and subsequently in the several Pala and Sans records. The late Mr.Ganga Mohan Laskar worked out the equation 1 Pataka=50 Dronavapas from the Asrafpur plates (Mem. A.S.B., vol. I, p. 87) but this is definitely disproved by the present plate where exact figures are given, whiles the Asrafpur figures are only rough. Unfortunately there are no means yet available to determine the measure of a Dronavapa, as there is great divergence of views regarding the corn measure Drona whence it is derived. Drona as a land measure is still current in Eastern Bengal and probably provides a better clue to the extent of a Dronavapa than any of the ancient texts. The lands were situated near the find place of the plate. For, among the boundaries of Plots Nos. I and II occurs the name of the village Gunikagrahara, which can be safely identified with Gunaighar. None of other place-names can be identified now. The fact that these lands were situated in the Northern Mandala may lead us to conjecture that the main kingdom of Vainyagupta with the Headquarters were probably situated in the southern part of the District p. 53 of Tippera. The village Gunaighar belongs to the large pargana Bardakhat (formerly Baldakhal) and is one of the twelve villages of the pargana with their names ending in "-ghar" (cf. the popular phrase in Bengali current in the pargana--"Bara ghar ek dwar"). It is already well-known in the district as full of antiquities. A fine image of Visnu in black stone was discovered many years ago in the village and is still worshipped there. About 5 years ago a stone image of the Buddhist God Avalokitesvara with twelve hands was also discovered in the village, with the formula "ye dharmma &c.'' inscribed in the pedestal. Only recently another stone image of Visnu has been unearthed. Ruins of a temple of Visnu exist in the village and a small mound popularly known as Chudar Par is supposed to cover the ruins of another temple. The place is likely to yield more important finds if properly investigated. A temple of Pradyumnesvara is mentioned in the plate giving a far greater antiquity to the worship of a form of Siva, immortalised by the poet Umapatidhara in the Deopara prasasti of Vijaya sena. TEXT OBVERSE 1. Svasti Maha-nau-hasty = asva-jayaskandhavarat = Kri-purad = bhagavan = Mahadeva-padanuddhyato Maharaja-Sri-Vainyaguptah 2. kusali(l).....svapadopajivinas = ca kusalam = asamsya samajnapayati viditam bhavatam = astu yatha 3. maya matapittror = atmanas = ca pu(nya)bhivr(ddha)ye smat = padadasa-Maharaja-Rudradatta-vijnapyad = anenaiva Mahayanika-Sakyabhiksv = a- ---------------------- 1 About 8 letters are effaced by corrosion here. p. 54 4. caryya-Santidevam = uddisya gopa (?) 1........, gbhage (?) karyyamanakaryyavalokitesvarasrama vihare anenai- 5. vacaryyena pratipadita (ka? ) Mahayanika (?)-Vaivarttika(2) -bhiksusaghanam(3) = parigrahe Bhagavato Buddhasya satatam triskalam 6. gandha-puspa-dipa-dhupadi-pra(4)........sya bhiksusamghasya ca civara-pindapata-sayanasana-glana- pratyaya- bhaisajyadi- 7. paribhogaya vihare(5) (ca) khanda-phutta-pratisamskara- karanaya Uttara-Mandalika-Kantedadaka-grame sarvato bho- 8. genagraharatvenaikadasa-khila-patakah pancabhih kh- and is = tamrapattenatisrstah(||*) Api ca khalu sruti-smrti-. 9. hapavihita (||*) Punya-bhumidana-srutim = aihik = amuttrika-phalavisese smrto (?)(6) bhavatah samupagamya svatastu pi-. 10. dam = apy = urikrtya pattrebhyo bhumim(7)... dvisa(? ) dbhir = asmad = vacana-gauravat = sva-yaso-dharmmavaptaye c = aite 11. pataka asmin = bi (? vi) hare sasvat = kalam = abhy(8) ---------------------- 1 This important portion apparently giving the situation of the Vihara is almost lost by corrosion: the last word seems to be digbhage. 2 The superscript r is formed here below the top-stroke (cf purvvena in l. 28 below). 3 Read sanghanam. The letter gh has a curl here to the left which is not found in the letter in l.6 below. 4 The portion effaced here would read something like-varttanaya ta-." 5 The superior stroke for a in -ha- is unusual, looking like that for e. 6 Read smrtau or smrtam. 7 About 4 letters are indistinct here. 8 4 or 5 letters are cut off here reading something like -anumantavyah. p. 55 .........(||*) Anupalanam = prati ca Bhagavata Parasaratma- jena Vedavya- 12 sena Vyasena gitah sloka bhavanti (||*) Sastim varsa sa(hasra) ni svargge modati bhumidah (l*) Aksepta c = anumanta ca ta- 13 nyeva nake(1) vaset (||*) Svadattam paradattam = va yo hareta (vasu)ndharam (1*)(sa) visthayam krmir=bhu- tva pitrbhih saha pacyate 14 Purvadattam dvijatibhyo yatnad = raksa yudhisthira (l*) Mahim mahimatam srestha danat = sreyonupalanam (||*) Varttaman = astasity = u- 15 ttara-sata-samvatsare pausamasasya caturvvinsa- titama-divase Dutakena Mahapratihara-Mahapilupati-Pan- cadhi- 16 karanoparika-patyuparika-(2) ?? -purapaloparika- Maharaja-sri-maha-samanta- Vijayasenen = aited = ekadasapata- ka-da- 17 nayajnam = anubhavitah Kumaramatya-Revajjasvami- Bhamaha-Vatsabhogikah (||*) Likhitam Sandhi-vigrahari (3) karana-kaya- 18 stha-Naradattena (||*) Yattr = aika-ksettra-khande nava-dronavapa-dhika-sapta-pataka-parimane sima lingani Purvvena Guneka 19 grahara-grama-sima Visnu-vardhaki-ksettras = ca Daksinena Miduvilala (?) -ksettram Rajavihara-ksettranca Pascimena Surinasiram = purnneka- 20 ksettram Uttarena Dosibhoga-puskarini (4) ........ vam = piyak = Adityavandhuksettrananca sima (||*) ---------------------- 1 Read narake 2 2 letters cannot be correctly deciphered here: it is possibly sura or pura, in the letter case a repetitoin by mistake of the same word pura. 3 Read -vigrahadhikari-. 4 A number of letters here as well as in ll.22 and 23 below are all but effaced. It will serve no useful purpose by conjectural readings of these portions. p. 56 21. Dvitiya- khandasy = astavinsati- dronavapa- parima- nasya sima Purvvena Gunikagrahara-grama-sima Daksinena Pakka- 22. vilala(?)-ksettram Pascimena Rajavihara-ksettram Uttarena Vaidya(?)-ksettram (||*) Tritiya-khandasya trayovinsati-dronavapa- 23. parimanasya sima Purvvena ... ... ksettram Daksinena-nakhaddarccarika(?)-ksettrasima Pascimena REVERSE 24. J(o?)lari-ksettram Uttarena nagijodaka-ksettram (||*) Caturthasya trimsaddronavapa-parimana-ksettra-khandasya sima Purvvena. 25. Buddhaka-ksettra-sima Daksinena Kalaka-ksettram Pascimena (S)uryya-ksettra-sima Uttarena Mahipala-ksettram (||*) (Pa)ncamasya 26. padona-pataka-dvaya-parimana-ksettra-khandasya sima Purvvena Khanda-vid(u) ggurika-ksettram Daksinena Mani- bhaddra- 27. ksettram Pascimena Yajnarata-ksettra-sima Uttarena Nadadadaka-gramasimeti (||*) Vihara-talabhumer = api sima- lingani 28. Purvvena Cudamani-Nagarasri-Nauyogayor = mmaddhye Jola Daksinena Ganesvara-vilala-puskarinya nau-khatah 29. Pascimena Pradyumnesvara-devakula-ksetra-prantah Uttarena Pradamara-Nauyoga-khatah(||*) Etad= Vihara- pravesya-sunya-pratikara- 30. hajika-khila-bhumer = api sima-lingani Purvvena Pradyumnesvara-devakula-ksettra-sima Daksinena Sakyabhiksv = acaryya-Jita- 31. Sena-Vaiharika-ksettravasa(?) nah Pascimena Ha (?) cata-gamga Uttarena Danda-puskini(1)c = eti || Sam 100 80 8 possya-di (2) 20 4. ---------------------- 1. Read -puskarina. 2. Read -pausa- p. 57 Translation (Lines 1-2) Hail! From the victorious camp full of great ships and elephants and horses(1) (situated) at Kripura, the glorious Maharaja Vainyagupta,(2) who meditates on the feet of God Mahadeva, being in good health, issues a command after wishing health to ......, and his own dependents: Be it known to you that (Lines 3-8) For enhancing the religious merits of myself and my parents, on the request of Maharaja Rudradatta, a slave to our feet, in the village of Kantedadaka situated in the ''Northern Mandala," eleven Patakas of uncultivated lands in five plots are granted by Me, by means of a copper plate as an Agrahara in absolute possession; for providing perpetually for perfumes, flowers, lights, incense, etc. thrice a day unto the Lord Buddha in the abode of the Vaivarttika congregation of monks (belonging) to the Mahayana, estab lished by the Buddhist monk of the Mahayana, Acaryya Santideva, in the Asrama-'Vihara (dedicated) to Arya-Ava- lokitesvara, which (Vihara) was being constructed in the part of.... by that (king) for the sake of that Acaryya; and for the enjoyment of garments, food, beds, seats, medicines for the sick etc. by that congregation; and also for repairing breaks and cracks in the Vihara. (Lines 8-11) Here again, both veda and smrti (texts) are indeed prescribed.(3) By Reading in the legal text, enjoining special merits both here and hereafter, the sense of ---------------------- 1. The opening expression mahanau etc. occurs in the Gaya plate of Samudragupta (Gupta Ins., p.256) and also in the Banskhera and Madhuban plates of Harsa. 2. Vainya, a spnonym for "the first king" Prthu, is spelt here with the dental nasal as in Rgveda, VIlI. ix, Io. It is now generally spelt with the cerebral (cf.Gupta, Ins., p. 74-- abhijati-gunena vainyam). 3. Apa-vihita is a rare word not found elsewhere. p. 58 a (now lost) Vedic text regarding holy gift of lands,(1) and themselves courting even hardships, enemy kings, who (are agreeable to giving) lands to proper persons, should, upon our honour in words and also for themselves acquiring fame) and merits, approve (the grant of) these Patakas unto this Vihara. (Lines 11-14) Regarding keeping up (in future), there are again verses sung by the revered Vyasa, the compiler of the Vedas, and the son of Parasara:-- (v.1) The giver of land rejoices in Heaven for sixty thousand years and he who confiscates and he who assents live in Hell for that period. (v.2) He who takes away land given by himself or by others rots along with his forefathers becoming a worm in soil. (v.3) O Yudhisthira, the best of kings, protect care fully the land granted by former (kings) to Brahmins, for, protection is better than the gift itself. (Lines 14-18) In the current year of One Hundred and Eighty-Eight, on the 24th day of the month of Pausa, by the Royal Ambassador, the great Frontier King Maharaja Vijayasena, who is the High Chamberlain, the Officer-in- charge of Elephants, the President of the Board of Five Law Court Officers and President of City Governors, the (royal) command for the gift of these eleven Patakas is made known unto the Kumaramatyas Revajjasvami, Bhamaha and Vatsa- bhojika. (This is) written by Karana-Kayastha Naradatta, who is the Minister in charge of Peace and War. (Lines 18-27) Wherein the first plot of land measuring seven Patakas and nine Dronavapas, the boundary marks are, to the East, the border of the Gunikagrahara village and the field of Engineer Visnu; to the South, the field of Miduvilala(?) and the field belonging to the Royal Vihara; to the West, the Surinasirampurnneka(?) field; to the North, the tank of Dosibhoga,...and the boundaries of the fields of(?) Vampiyaka and Adityabandhu. Of the second plot measur- ---------------------- 1. Reading Smrtam makes much the same sense. p. 59 ing tmenty-eight.Dronavapas, the boundaries are, to the East, border of Gunikagrahara village; to the South, the field of Pakkavilala(?); to the West, the field of the Royal Vihara. To the North, the field of Vaidya...... Of the third plot measuring twenty-three Dronavapas the boundaries are to the East, the field of......; to the South, the boundary limit of the field of........; to the West, the field of Jolari; to the North, the field of Nagi jodaka. Of the fourth plot of land measuriug thirty Dronavapas, the boundaries are, to the East, the boundary limit of the field of Buddhaka; to the South, the field of Kalaka; to the West, the boundary limit of the field of Suryya; to the North, the field of Mahipala. Of the fifth plot of land measuring a couple of Patakas less a quarter, the boundaries are, to the East, the field of Khandaviduggurika; to the South, the field of Manibhadra; to the West, the boundary limit of the field of Yajnarata; to the North, the boundary limit of the village Nadadadaka. (Lines 27-31) The boundary marks of the low lands(1) belonging to the Vihara are, to the East, the channel between the (two) ports of ships at Cudamani and Nagarasri(2); to the South, the channel, open to ships connnected to the large marshy pond of Ganesvara(3); to the West, the end of the field belonging to the temple of Pradyumnesvara; to the North, the channel (leading) to the port of Pradamara.(4) The boundary marks also of water-logged waste lands pertaining to the right of entrance (5) of this Vihara and paying no ---------------------- 1. For talabhumi cf. tala-pataka in the Khalimpur grant 1.52. 2. There are possibly two place names here: it may also mean "at the town of Cudamani," the epithet Sri is then ill construed with nauyoga. 3. Can it be a place name? 4. Also seems to be a place name rather than that of a person. 5. The word pravesya is difficult to interpret. The meaning suggested by Dr. Sukthankar, following Hultzsch, "that which belongs to the pravesa" (a territorial division), Ep. Ind., XVII, p.106 does p. 60 requital (tax)' are to the East, the boundary limit of the field belonging to the temple of Pradyumnesvara; to the South, the limit of the field belonging to the Vihara of the Buddhist monk, Acaryya Jitasena; to the West, the stream(2) Hacata; to the North, the tank of Danda(?). (Line 31) The year 188, the 24th day of Pausa. ---------------------- 1. Pratikara can hardly mean 'the right of alienation' ; it may simply mean 'tax' (kara) or better 'a state allowance.' 2. Gamga 'a stream' survives in the word gang still current in East Bengal (cf. Dr. S.K. Chatterji : loc. cit. pp.305 and 363).