Samapa: Or the Asokan Kalinga
IN the Kalinga edicts of Asoka, containing
instructions to the of ficers entrusted with the
control of the tribes on the borders, it is stated
that these officers were located at a place called
Samapa, and the Provincials' Edict says that a
viceroy was placed at Tosali. Thus the two chief
towns of Kalinga are mentioned, but their location
being undefined, they have not yet been identified,
and the limits of Kalinga have become a matter for
The first of the speculators was W. W. Hunter,
who in the Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1886,
identified Coringa or Rajahmandry, in the Godavari
district, with the old capital of Kalinga, thus
taking the southern boundary of Kalinga beyond the
Godavari. Vincent A.Smith asserts that Kalinga
extended from the Mahanadi to the river Krishna in
the south. He includes Amaravati, Andhra or Warangal,
and Kalinga proper or Rajahmandry in the three
Kalingas.(1) The same view is held by the
Superintendent of the Madras Archa‘logical
Department, who, to prove the antiquity of the caves
and stupas at Guntapalle, states, " we know from the
rock-cut inscription at Jaugada in the Ganjam
district that Asoka conquered this part of the Madras
Presidency in B.C. 230.(2)"
Let us examine all these statements. Hunter's
assumption has been disproved by F.E. Pargiter, who
says that Kalinga 'does not appear to have reached as
far as the Godavari, because this river is never
connected with Kalinga in any passage as far I am
aware'. Hunter was led to his belief by the
similarity of Coringa in sound to Kalinga, but a
careful study of place-names shows that Coringa is
made up of Cor + inga. The first syllable has the
same meaning--whatever it may be--as 'cor' in Cor-lam,
Clor-la-kota, Cor-la. It cannot be a modification of
'Kal' in 'Kalinga'. Next, Rajahmandry has been
believed to be the capital of Kalinga, because it was
thought to be another form of the Rajapura mentioned
as the capital of Kalinga:--
But Rajapura cannot be the name of the capital,
as the term means only the royal residence. Even
supposing it to have been the metropolis itself, it
cannot be identified with Rajahmandry, as the latter
town is reputed to have been built by Rajaraja, the
Eastern Chalukyan king who had the Mahabharata
translated into Telugu. And lastly, had three
Kalingas existed in the time of Asoka, why does he
speak of having conquered only Kalinga? Had the
region inhabited by the Andhras been included in
Kalinga, they would not have been separately stated
by him to be a people 'in the king's dominions'.(5)
Also, since the Andhras, like the Pitinikas and
others, are mentioned by Asoka as living in the
king's dominions, i.e., in the dominions that had
been under the sway of the Mauryan Ruler before
Kalinga was subdued, it would seem that they had
never got into Kalinga before that time.
The Andhra inscriptions, so far known, fix
Pittapur as the Northern limit of Andhra influence on
the East Coast. The inscription at Kodavalu near
Pittapur, the only Andhra inscription yet discovered
in this part of the country, tells us that Sami Sri
Chanda Sata (Chandra Sri Satakarni)(6) was the king of
the Andhras about A.D. 208. These Andhras, originally
inhabitants of the Vindhyas, marched down the
Godavari valley and occupied
1 V. A. Smith's Asoka, p. 129, n. 4.
2 Archaological Report, 1916-17, p. 31.
3 JASB., vol. LXVI, part I, No. 2, 1587.
4 Mahabharata, Santi P., Canto 4.
5 Edict XIII.
6 No. 29, Puranic list of V.A. Smith.
the region about the mouths of the river during
the second century of our era.(7) Though an
impassible barrier, such as a high range of mountains
or a broad sea, did not divide the regions occupied
respectively by the Andhras and the Kalingas, they
remained separate and distinct, each maintaining its
own civilization, religion and arts. The Kalingas
were Jains, building Arhats with very little art
decoration, while the Andhras built in a fine
architecture Buddhist stupas decorated with beautiful
sculptures. Had the Andhras spread themselves into
Kalinga, such relics as have been found at Amaravati
and Guntapalle would have been seen in the country
lying to the north of the Langulya.
khaaravela, who ruled over Kalinga about
the period immediately after A`soka, says in
an inscription that the Andhra kingdom lay
to the west of his own.
By west he may mean the districts of Godavari and Krishna. Even
in the present day,the people of the districts
of Ganjam and Vizagapatam call those of Godaavari
and Krishna, the men of the west; while the men
of Godavari and Krishna understand by the eastern
people the men of Vizagapatam and Ganjam districts.
In the light of this fact, 'Andhras of the west'
may mean the Andhras in the lower valleys of Godavari
and Krishna rivers. The actual west of the country of
Kalinga being mountainous, if would have been very
difficult for `Saatakarni to send his presents avross
Whatever be the position of the Andhra country
relative to Kalinga, it is certain that they were two
distinct and independent kingdoms, and there is no
reason to think that the Andhras were the people of
Kalinga. It is now necessary to define the limits of
the region called Kalinga under Asoka.
In the Eastern Ghats there are a number of passes
that lead from the littoral over the Ghats into the
interior of India. The easiest of them all is the
Kalingia Ghat which goes from Russulkonda by
Durgaprasad. It is quite practicable for carts. At
the top of the Ghat there is a road on to the Boad
frontier. " From Kalingia, at the top of this Ghat
there is another road that leads to Balliguda ".(9) '
Kalingia ' in Oriya means ' belonging to Kalinga.'
This pass was probably the chief means of intercourse
over the hills between Central India and Kalinga.
The people called the Kalingis are found even now
living to the north of the Nagavali or Langulya,
which forms the boundary between the districts of
Ganjam and Vizagapatam. "Kalingi (126, 546): A caste
of temple priests and cultivators found mainly in
Ganjam and Vizagapatam."(10) "The Kalingis are
essentially Telugus and are found mainly on the
borderland between the districts of Ganjam and
Vizagapatam. The same class of people are known as
the Kalinjis in the country north of the Vamsadhara
river."(11) In the Telugu parts they are called
Kalingis and in the Oriya country they are kmown as
Kalinjis. These Kalingis are not found south of
Chipurupalle in the Vizagapatam district. These were
the original people that gave their name to the
region; most of them are now found confined to the
south of Ganjam district, but some are found
scattered all over the Oriya country along the coast.
7 " Misconceptions about the Andhras," ante, vol.
XLII, part DXXXVII, Nov, 1913.
8 Actes du Sixieme congres Internationale de
Orientalistes tenu en 1883, a Leda. " Hatagumpha
9 Ganjam District Manual.
10 Census Report, 1901.
11 Castes and Tribes of Southern India.
The capital of Kalinga was always known as
Kalinganagara. Kharavela is said to have strengthened
his town of Kalinganagara in the first year of his
reign. The major portion of the Udayagiri inscription
of this king speaks of the embellishments made to the
Arhats on the hill. " Umbrellas and kalasas were
placed in display, that faith for the Triratna might
be inspired among minor and greater chiefs." After
every victory he obtained over his enemies, the king
Kharavela made gifts of " an excellent
wish-fulfilling tree with horses, elephants,
chariots, with alms houses and rest houses " to the
Arhat.(12) An outside seat was made for the Arhats on
the Kumari Hill, and an assemblage of the very
learned and great sages of all quarters was held on
the mountain peak near the site of the Arhat. Such
attentions to a seat of worship could be given by
the ruling king only when such a religious house was
close to the royal residence. The copper-plate grants
of the Eastern Ganga kings speak of a kalinganagara as
the seat of the kings.This town is identified with
Kalingapatam by same and with Mukhalingam by others
Whatever the truth may be, the capital of the Eastern
Ganga kings cannot have been so far north as the
Udayagiri Hills, near which existed the chief seat of
the Jain King Kharavela.
Kalinga is said to be a district in the country
ruled over by Saktivarma, who had his chief seat of
government at Pishtapura (Pitahpur) .(l3) On
paleographical grounds, these plates may be assigned
to a little before or after the conquest of Kalinga
by Samudragupta. The king calls himself
'Vasishtiputra' and 'Magadhi'. It appears therefore
that he was a descendant of Chandra Satakarni who was
also a Vasishtiputra. He was consequently an Andhra
king, who from his capifal at Pitahpur ruled over the
Kalinga country. In the same plates the village
Rakaluva is mentioned as being in the Kalinga
Vishaya. It has been identified with Ragolu, a
village on the road from the railway-station to
Chicacole (83' 57' 30" N. and 18' 20' 48" E., Indian
Atlas, No. 108), and lying to the north of the
Nagavali. This clearly proves that the country of
Kalinga lay to the north of that river.
Samudragupta is said to have defeated Swamidatta,
the king of Pishtapura and Mahendragiri Kottura.(14)
The original line concerned with this point runs
In the whole prasasti, as in this line, the
name of the king is mentioned immediately after the
name of his kingdom. So the translators were mistaken
and said Mahendra was the king of the country
belonging to Pishtapura; and Swamidatta was the king
of the country related to 'Kottura on the hill.' In
the revised edition of his Early History of India, V.
A. Smith says (p. 284) that " Samudragupta vanquished
the chieftain who held Pishtapura, the ancient
capital of Kalinga, now Pithapuram in the Godavari
district, as well as the hill forts of Mahendragiri
and Kottura." In a foot-note Kottura is identified
with Kottoor of Indian Atlas No. 108, which lies
twelve miles south-south-east from Mahendragiri. This
interpretation is self-contradictory in two points.
Kottura is called "a hill fort;" but the village of
Kottoor identified with it is on the sea coast and
cannot be a hill fort. The compound 'Mahendragiri
Kautturaka', is not a dvandva, because 'Mahendragiri'
is an adjective and 'Kauttura' is a noun. The termination
of the compound does not show its dual nature. As a
compound the term means 'of Kottura connected with
Mahendragiri.' The mountain Mahendra was always the
chief landmark for Kalinga. Therefore by 'Mahendragiri
Kottura' is meant Kalinga, and Kottura near
Mahendragiri was its chief town. The whole line means
"Swamidatta (the ruler) of the country which has
Pishtapura (for its capital), and also of
12 Op. Oit., Hatagumpha Caves.
13 Ep. Ind., vol.Æ¾Æ¶,No.1.
14 Allahabad Posthumous Pillar Inscription: Corpus.
the country which has Kottura near Mahendragiri
(for its capital) ." So the two kingdoms
Paishtapuraka, and Kalinga were, at the time of
Samudragupta's invasion, under one king. From this it
appears that Ragolu plates of Saktivarma belonged to
The conquests described in the Raghuvamsa seem to
have had their source in the conquests of Samudragupta.
" He crossed the river Kapisa with his army on a
bridge made of his elephants, and being shown the way
by the princes of Utkala, bent his course towards
Kalinga. He encamped with all the unbearable
influence of his military glory, on the peak of the
Mahendra mountain, like unto the elephant driver, who
plunges deep his goading rod on the head of an
elephant that does not mind the pain. The prince of
Kalinga who came to fight with a large number of
elephants received him with a shower of arrows."(16)
The prince of Kalinga is said to have come and
attacked king Raghu, who had already occupied the
heights of Mahendra. If he had been residing at
Kottura, the chief town of Kalinga, he would have
been ready at Mahendra to receive the conqueror. He
must have been far away at Pishtapura, his chief
residence, when he heard of the approach of the
invader, and would have come to fight him. Consider
the difficulties of conveying an army composed of
elephants and archers from Pitahpur to the Mahendra
mountain in those early days, when there were no good
roads. Even in Katha Sarit Sagar, king Vatsa is said
to have occupied Mahendra first and then subdued the
Kalingas.(17) All these show that Kalinga was for
some time in the fourth century of our era under the
domination of the king of Pishtapura, but it was kept
separate with its own metropolis and its own
institutions. Before and after this period the
kingdom of Kalinga was free and independent under
its own native rulers.
There is evidence to prove that the Kalinga
kingdom extended southward as far as Mahendra and
Kottur during the century preceding the Christian
"made (erected) pillars in Patalaka, Chetaka
and Vaiduryagarbha." Vaiduryagarbha and the others
were thought to be parts of the caves. If this is
right, then there was no need to erect pillars. Here
means triumphal pillars. So the above names are not
those of caves, but of territories. Vaiduryagarbha
is the modern Vidarbha. Chetaka is the Svetaka of the
grants of Prithivivarma Deva,(19) Samanta Varma,
(20) and Indravarma, (21) which is spoken of as
'Svetakadhishthana.' This ' Svetaka' by metathesis
became 'Sikati' or 'Chikati,' a small zamindari in
the Ganjam district, extending as far as Baruva to
the south. The Kottur of Samudra- gupta's times lies
very near Baruva. There is no doubt therefore that
the southern boundary of the Kalinga of Kharavela
extended as far as Baruva.
It has already been pointed out that the chief
centre of Kharavela's administration was not far from
the Udayagiri hills, on which his inscription exists.
Kalinga, being conquered
15 Raghuvamsa Canto IV.
16 Bandharkar's translation.
17 Katha Sarit Sagar, lambaka 3, taranga 5.
18 Udayagiri Ins., line 15.
19 Ep. Ind,, vol, IV, No. 26.
20 Ep. Ind., vol. XV, No. 14.
21 Ep. Report, 1918, App, A, No. 9.
by Asoka, was governed through a viceroy till
only a few years before the accession of Kharavela.
The Viceregal seat of Kalinga must have been either
at Kalinganagara itself, or in the near vicinity.
Indeed it was strategically necessary for the
conqueror to locate his government either in the
capital or in its immediate neighbourhood. I shall
reserve the identification of Tosali for a future
occasion, and take up now the extent of Kalinga.
The three kingdoms of Anga, Vanga and Kalinga are
said to have been founded by three princes of those
names who were the sons of king Bali. Angas descended
from Anga; from Vanga came the Vangas, and the
Kalingas came from the prince Kalinga.(22) Anga is
identified with Bhagalpore and Vanga with the modern
Bengal. Kalinga must be south of Bengal, but where it
begins in the north requires study. Let us look at
King Raghu is said to have crossed the river
Kapisa after he had conquered the Vangas. Being shown
the way by the Utkalas, he entered Kalinga and
encamped on the Mahendra hill. Lassen identifies the
river Kapisa with Subarnarekha, but Mr. Pargiter
proves it to be the Kansi which flows through
Midnapur.(23) King Vatsa is said to have defeated the
Vangas and planted a triumphal pillar on the shores
of the eastern sea. Then the Kalingas came and paid
tribute to him when he had reached the Mahendra
In the Mahabharata, Yudhishtira is said to have
reached the sea where the Ganges enters it with five
mouths and thence to have proceeded to Kalinga along
The river Vaitarani is the Baitrani in the north of Orissa.
The Utkalas mentioned in the Raghuvamsa are not
spoken of in the edicts of Asoka, nor in the
inscriptions of Kharavela. Kalinga was then spoken of
as one kingdom. But in times subsequent to those of
Magadha supremacy, the country of Kalinga, owing
either to racial differences or to the rise of the
dormant tribes, must have been divided into
Kauralaka. Mahakantaraka, and Mahendragiri, --the
Kautturaka of the Allahabad Pillar inscription, or
the Udra, Konyodha and Kalinga of Hiuen-Tsiang.
Ut-kala is only a contraction of Uttara-Kalinga,
which means northern Kalinga. When the northern part
of Kalinga, which is adjacent to the kingdoms of
Northern India, associated with the north, the
indigent Dravidian tribes, such as the Kuis and the
Savaras, combined with the immigrant peoples from the
south (Dramilas) and associated the southern part
with Southern India. So the northern peoples became
known as the people of Northern Kalinga, or
Uttara-Kalingas or Ut-Kalas, while the southern
inhabitants were called Kalingas. When this
separation was brought about cannot be precisely
stated, but it must have happened in the time that
intervened between Kharavela's time and
Samudragupta's invasion--a period of oblivion in the
history of the eastern part of the Gangetic valley.
It is clear, however, that Kalinga lay immediately to
the south of Bengal, which then formed a part of the
kingdom of Asoka.
22 Mahabharata, Adi Parva, canto 143; Machchi Purana,
Adyaya 48; Vishnu Purana, by H. H. Wilson, pp.
144, Amsa 4, Adhyaya 23.
23 JASB., vol. LXVI, part I No. 2 (1897).
24 Katha Sarit Sagar, supra.
25 Mahabharata, Vana Parva.
When Asoka ascended the throne of Magadha he
found that Kalinga abutted on his Kingdom on the
south. It was a powerful civilised neighbour of the
Great Mauryan Ruler. " In such a country dwell
Brahmans and ascetics, men of different sects and
house-holders, who all practise obedience to elders,
obedience to father end mother, proper treatment of
friends, acquaintances, comrades, relatives, slaves,
and servants with fidelity of devotion."
Difference in religion may have been the cause of
the war that Asoka waged against Kalinga. From the
records of Kharavela we learn that Jainism, which was
contemporaneous with Buddhism, was followed in
Kalinga, while Brahmanism was the state religion in
Magadha. Asoka himself admits that he acquired the
Law of Piety " on seeing the atrocities committed
when Kalinga was subdued by the force of arms."(26) "
Asoka was," by the preachings of a young ascetic, "
constrained to abandon the Brahmanical faith of his
father and to accept as a lay disciple the sacred law
of Buddha.(27) The Asokavadana says that on seeing
the miracle shown by a holy ascetic named
Balapandita, Asoka embraced the true religion and
forsook the paths of wickedness. The conversion of
Asoka seems to have happened after Kalinga had been
conquered. It must have been the Brahmans, always
opposed to Buddhism and Jainism, who advised Asoka to
subdue Kalinga and destroy the Anti-Brahman religion
prevalent there. This fact is corroborated by the
Daladavamsa:--" When the remains of Buddha, were
distributed amongst his disciples, the left canine
tooth of the lower jaw fell to the lot of one of
them. He brought it to Kalinga and built a small
stupa over it. Seeing the miracles worked by it, many
people gathered round it and a big city named Danfa-
pura rose round it. The Brahmans, envying the
popularity of Buddhism, advised Guha-Siva, the King
of Kalinga, to destroy the stupa and the city of
Dantapura. But by the miracles shown by the tooth,
Guha-Siva embraced Buddhism. Then Asoka, the
overlord, was induced to punish Guha-Siva, and
destroy Dantapura. But the tooth appeared to Asoka in
a dream and by means of ifs miracles converted him to
Kalinga was a powerful kingdom and an adverse
religion was followed there. It became therefore
necessary to subdue it, but when attempts to conquer
it were made it showed a bold front. A great and
bloody war ensued. " One hundred and fifty thousand
persons were thence carried away captive; one hundred
thousand were slain and many times that number
perished." Having thus conquered it, Asoka found it
necessary to establish two sets of governing bodies,
one to carry on the provincial administration and the
other to control the border tribes. The former was
placed at Tosali and the latter at Samapa. The
administrative genius exhibited here by the Mauryan
Emperor is akin to that of the British administration
of the North-Western Frontier Territory.
The need of a frontier administration proves the
existence of uncivilised and troublesome forest
tribes on the borders of Kalinga. Which border was it
? On the west there are the Eastern Ghats, beyond
which in aftertimes rose up the kingdom of South
Kosala. These Ghats, being difficult to cross, formed
a safe protection on the west. On the south no such
protection existed and the forest tribes also were
very troublesome. Kharavela speaks of having planted
a pillar of victory in Chataka (Chikati) which is
even now inhabited by Savaras and other forest
tribes. "The Kingdom of Mahakantara" is mentioned by
Samudragupta. The name itself tells us that it was a
great forest. The Konyodha spoken of by Hiuen-Tsiang
suggests that it was a kingdom of Kondhs, of the
class of "forest
26 Edict xiii.
27 The Ceylonese legend: Asoka by V. A. smith.
tribes." All these refer to one and the same
tract of country lying on the southern border of
Asokan Kalinga. Raghu is said to have marched his
armies through a forest after he had vanquished the
king of Kalinga. King Vatsa also similarly led his
invading army through a forest, after he had captured
the Mahendra, mountain.
Even in these days the country about this
mountain forms the home of the Savaras, the Kuis and
other forest tribes. The Savaras must have been
partly civilised, for they were hospitable and Rama
was hospitably received by a Savara lady. They have
always been powerful and warlike, and they fought in
the war of Mahabharata. Therefore it is no wonder
that Asoka tried to put a check upon them. A constant
watch had to be put on them, for they distrusted
Asoka, as he was foreign to them. This is why he says
:--" I desire them to trust me and to be assured that
they will receive from me happiness, and not sorrow."
So he instructs his border officers to " inspire this
folk with trust, so that they may be convinced that
the king is unto them even as a father, and that as
he cares for himself, so he cares for them, who are
as the king's children." (28) With these bits of good
advice were however mingled threats to overawe
them: --" Shun evil-doing that ye may escape
destruction." It was only after the annexation of
Kalinga that the monarch's heart became sensitive to
pain and misery. He himself confesses it:--" The loss
of even the hundredth or the thousandth part of the
persons, who were then slain, carried away captive,
or done to death in Kalinga, would now be a matter of
deep regret to H is Majesty." Toleration of religion,
kindness to animals, and all such morals were adopted
after the conquest of Kalinga. To preach these morals
to and oontrol the border tribes, officials were
appointed and were placed in such a position that
might freely mix with the borderers and give
instructions:--" I expect to be well served by you in
this business, because you are in a position enabling
you to inspire these folk with trust and to secure
their happiness." The officials were expected to "
display persevering energy in inspiring trust in
these borderers and guiding them in the path of
Piety." These things could not have been done unless
the responsible officials had lived in the midst of
the forest tribes.
A`soka,in his zeal to promulgate his Law of Piety
and his pious works, had all his edicts set up in
every place where he could find a favourable space to
carve them upon. Among the places in which they were
set up and stillexist are Dhauli and Jaugada in
Kalinga. Which of them was nearest the border ? It has
already been pointed that the borderers were in the
-South of Kalinga, i.e., in the tract about
Mahendragiri. Moreover, the Borderers' Edict at
Jaugada is in better preservation than its duplicate
at Dhauli;while the Provincials' Edict at Dhauli is
better preserved than its duplicate at Jaugada. If
the respective states of preservation bad been due
to the work of wind and rain, both the edicts in
both the places would have been equally effected.
This inequality of preservation cannot be due to the
destructive ravages of the Muhammadan invaders, or
of the Pindari. and Thag hordes, for they would have
tried to destroy the whole inscribed surface and not
only particular parts of it. The phenomenon is
probably due to the care of the border officers being
specially bestowed only on the Edict which ooncerned
them, to the neglect of the others. For this reason
Jaugrtda must be held to be nearest the border, and
that border to be the southern one, where there are
troublesome border tribes.
It is now necessary to locate the bead-quarters
of the frontier control. Tosali, the seat of the
Viceroy of Kalinga, is mentioned by Ptolemy in his
Ancient India. The vestiges of a large city have
been discovered not far from the site of the monument
at Dhauli. (29) The
28 Compare the Instructions to the Provincials with
29 McKrindle's Ptolemy.
position of Tosali having been thus defined, we
must seek for that of Samapa. Although the Borderers'
Edict is at Jaugada, there are those who presume that
the southern border was far south, near Pulicat or
Rajahmandry. Yet a study of the distribution of the
Pillar and Rock Edicts of Asoka shows that the
material selected for carving the inscriptions was
adapted to the physical nature of the country in
which the edict was intended to be published. Thus in
the Gangetic valley, where a stone as big as a pea
cannot be obtained, big blocks of stone shaped into
the form of pillars had to be brought from a distance
and set up with the edicts already carved on them. In
places like Sanchi, where suitable structures were
already existing, a foct-step, or a railing, or a
pillar of a railing would offer a surface for
engraving, not a command or a moral doctrine, but a
gift or an offering to the holy shrine. Rocks were
selected to record the edicts where there were
natural boulders. Now, these Asokan Edicts
approximately give us the limits of the Mauryan
Empire, and had Kalinga run so far south as
Rajahmandry, the Mauryan Emperor would not have been
at a loss to find, near the banks of the Godavary, a
boulder similar to the one at Jaugada. Had the caves
and topes at Guntapalle flourished during the time of
Davanampriya, a pillar or a railing would have
offered a face to carve an edict or a gift upon, but
they did not then exist. A comparative study of the
characters in the Asokan Edicts and those of the
inscriptions discovered in the Guntapalle
excavations will show that they quite disagree, and
thus it is proved that they do not belong to the same
period. Indeed, from the paleography of the
inscriptions discovered in the Guntapalle caves, it
may be safely asserted that the caves and other local
specimens of architecture belong to a time later than
that of Asoka.
Thus it appears to be clear that Jaugada is near
the southern frontier of Kalinga. Samapa must be
searched for near it. In fact Jaugada itself may have
been Samapa, for there is the rock with the edicts
upon it, surrounded by a fort, the ruins of which are
to be seen even now. The following is a description
of the Jaugada rock and the fort, taken from Sewell's
Lists:--" It is situated on the site of a large
city, surrounded by a fort wall. The inscribed rock
is one of a group inside the fort. It rises
vertically and the inscribed surface faces the
south-east. Numbers of copper coins have been found
close by the Jaugada fort. Old pottery and tiles
abound within the fort wall." The Ganjam District
Manual gives the following account of the place:--"
What the enclosure was it is not possible to say. It
seems too large for a 'fort ';it is a long square,
the opposite faces being 858 yards by 814 yards
respectively. The bank, an earthen one, even now, in
places is 18 feet high and 148 1/2 ft. across at the
base and it has two entrances on each side. Inside
are found old tiles and debris of houses, and coins
after rain and in ploughing; but for the most part
the coins are copper ones......"
The Asokan Edicts do not say anything of a fort
having been built there by Asoka. Moreover, a
monarch, who entirely trusted to the efficacy of his
Law of Piety for good government, had very little
need of forts and strongholds. Asoka depended
entirely upon the moral co-operation of his subjects
for the defence of his dominions. The foreign
princes, whose kingdoms bordered on that of Asoka
were held in the pious bond of the Law of Piety and
were prevented from territoral aggression. Thus
enjoying internal peace and having no fear of attack
from outside, Devanampriya had full tranquillity of
mind when visiting the holy places and building
stupas and erecting votive pillars and monuments.
" Jaugada " means the " Lac Fort." Its name of '
Lac ' is from a tradition that it was made of 'Lac'
and was therefore impregnable, for no enemy could
scale the walls because they were too smooth and
slippery; hut its impregnability was destroyed by a
spy who let
the adversary into the secret that tire would
melt the stuff." (30) The fort however appears to have
been built in times subsequent to Asoka's.
The rocks here are geologically connected with
the Eastern Ghats, and the place is now surrounded by
Peddakemidi, Chinna Kemidi, and other parts of Ganjam
District, where malaria and other kinds of forest
diseases are rife. In those ancient days, however,
the region may have been even more unhealthy. A
benign sovereign, who treated his people as his own
children, would not expose his officers to this
unhealthy region. At the present day the officers for
the administration of the Agency tracts of the three
northernmost districts of the Madras Presidency have
their head-quarters at Vizagapatam, a healthy town on
the sea coast, and the Kalinga rulers of old are also
said to have greatly appreciated life on the coast.
The palace of the King of Kalinga was on the seashore
" The ocean itself, the waves of which are seen
from the windows of his palace, and the deep
resounding roars of which surpass the sound of the
watch drum, being close at hand, awakes him as it
were, when asleep in his palace-room."
At the approach of the spring, the King of
Kalinga retired to the shore with his family and
subjects to celebrate the vernal festivities.
" In that season, when the various creepers dance
according to the instruction given by their tutor,
the cool breeze that is embraced by the sandal-wood
trees on the slopes of the Dardura hill, the King of
Kalinga, accompanied by his women folk, his daughter
and his townsmen, became engaged in sport for
thirteen days in the pleasure garden on the sea-
shore, which is impenetrable to the rays of the sun,
where the sand-banks are swept by the tendrils of the
creepers that are bent by the perching of the humming
bees, and which is cooled by the spray of the waves
that play constantly."
Communications with other countries was mostly by
sea. The Andhra king comes over the sea and carries
away the King of Kalinga and his family.(33) Great
and constant was the intercourse with Ceylon
(Iramandalam) . The people of Ceylon established
colonies. Hiramandalam, Hirapuram in the Parlakimidy
Taluk, Hira Khandi in Dharakota Zamindari, Hirapalli
in Gumsur Taluk, Hirapalli in Attagada Zamindari of
the Ganjam District, are all remnants of Ceylonese
colonisation in Kalinga. Kalingapura, the modern
Polannaruwa in Ceylon, reminds us of the great
friendship that existed between that Island and
Kalinga,. The left canine tooth of the lower jaw of
Buddha, which was found in the Ceylon stupas and is
now deposited in the British Museum, was taken to
Ceylon from Kalinga after the destruction of
30 Ganjam District Gazette.
31 Raghu Vamsa, Canto 6.
32 Dasakumara Oharitra, Canto 7.
33 Ganjam District Manual.
For such maritime intercourse there must be a
port convenient for anchorage and safe from storms.
Baruva at the mouth of the Mahendratanaya is
mentioned by Pliny as the point from which the ships
coming from the south turned to cross to Chryse. "
Baruva, being only 16 miles from Mahendragiri, is the
nearest port and can be seen from the bungalow on the
hill.(34) Even now native passengers from Burmah are
frequently landed at Baruva. There are two temples
there, reputed to have been built by the Pandavas,
and it is near by that the Kottura of Samudragupta
must be placed.
It is in this region near the southern border of
Kalinga, and almost in the vicinity of the Savara
region, and having a good sea-port, that the
situation of Samapa must be sought.
The word Samapa is formed of Sama (even or level)
and apa (water). The name signifies that it is a
town built in the region of level water, i.e., a
level country. In old days towns and villages were
given names signifying the natural condition of the
country in which they were built. To make this name
more significant ' ta ' (earth) was added as an affix
in subsequent times. 'Samapata'(35) in the days when
the people from the south came and settled in
Kalinga, became 'Samapeta,' then 'Sampeta,' which
easily became 'Sompeta.' 'Dramilas,' the modern
'Dravidas,' were defeated by Raja Raja, the father of
Anantavarma Choda Ganga.(36) Dimila in Vizagapatam
District and Dimilas in Ganjam District remind us of
the settlement of the country by the people from the
'Sompeta' is the head-quarters of a Deputy
Tahsildar and native Magistrate.The village is situated
partly in the Talatampara mutah of the Chikati
estate, and partly in that of Jalantara. The country
around is level and fertile. Uddanam is a fertile
tract adjoining Sompeta, where there are flourishing
gardens of fruit trees. Plantains, jack-fruit,
oranges and other kinds of fruit are so plentifully
grown that they are supplied not only to the whole of
Ganjam District but to the adjacent parts of
Vizagapatam. Talatampara, which means 'a low marsh '
is only two miles from Sompeta and reminds us of the
original level nature of the land. Some old coins
also are reported to exist here.(37) Kottura, the
modern Kotturu, lies only two miles north-east of
Kanchili, two miles by road from Sompeta,
contains images and temples of great antiquity. An
old temple, said to date from the time of the
Pandavas, exists at Pottangi, which is 6 miles
south-west of Sompeta. Inscriptions also are said to
exist in this village. Patasapuram, which is only
one mile from Sompeta, contains inscriptions in
unknown characters. Mahendragiri, the most important
land-mark of Kalinga, is 15 miles west of Sompeta.
Its nearness to the capital of the Kalinga of
Samudragupta's times, and its closeness to the port
of Baruva mentioned by Ptolemy, clearly prove that
Sompeta was the Samapa of Asoka; and it is the
nearest to the habitat of the Savaras, the powerful
tribes for whose control the great and pious Mauryan
Emperor issued Edicts of advice.
34 Ganjam District Manual.
35 Sampa-ti-puram in Anakapalli Taluk of Vizagapatam
Distric, appears to have got its name from Samapa.
'Ti' is an evidence of 'ta', being added to make
the sense more clear.
36 Ind. Ant., vol. XVIII, June 1889, No. 179.
37 Sewell's Lists.