INDIAN ARCHITECTURAL TERMS
ANANDA K. COOMARASWAMY
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY, Vol. 48, no. 3, SEPT 1928.
(c) by The AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY
ACHARYA, P. K., Indian. Architecture According to the
Maanasaara'silpa'saastra, pp. iv, 268, index: A
Dictionary of Hindu Architecture, pp. xx, 861,
index. Both printed in Allahaabaad, published
by the OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, and without
date (1927 or 1928).
These two volumes, the latter especially, are
monumental workg and will be indispensable to every
student of Indian architecture and realia. Only those
who work along these lines will realise the great
labour involved in the preparation of such books,
especially when they are almost the first of their
kind; the serioue study of the Indian
'silpa-'saastras has been too long delayed, and a
warm welcome may be extended to the Professor's
undertaking. The author, nevertheless, has neglected
a good deal of work that has been done in this field;
surprising omissions in the references, for example,
are Rao, Taalamaana, Jouveau-Dubreuil, Archologie
du Sud de I'Inde, and texts such as the
Vi.s.nudharmottara and 'Silparatna. Moreover the
author is too little, if at all, acquainted with the
actual buildings; otherwise, indeed, he could not
have remarked that the buildings and sculptures of
the time when the text of the Maanasaara was composed
"have all been destroyed," overlooking the fact that
sculptures and building of this and earlier periods
survive in thousands, and that a very great deal of
exact information about the early architecture can be
gathered from the 'Su.nga, Ku.saana, and AAndhra
reliefs. I have myself in preparation a work based on
this early material, which can and necessarily will
be very fully illustrated. Jouveau-Dubreuil had the
immense advantage of a thorough knowledge of the
actual architecture, and of personal contact with
living sthapatis able to explain the meaning of
technical terms; without these qualifications
Professor Acharya has attempted an almost impossible
task, for here book-learning, however profound, is
The following notes, however, are meant to be a
further contribution to the subject and an
acknowledgment of the value of what the Professor has
already accomplished, rather than further criticism.
As of most general interest I would call
attention to the items AAbhaasa, Candra-'saalaa,
Hasti-nakha, Ku.taagaara, Likh, Li^nga, Naaraaca,
Tulaa. I should aleo like to emphasize the fact that
a study of the early use of the words which later
appear as established technical terms in the
'Silpa-'saastras is of great value for the study of
architectural history. There is still very much to be
accomplished in this direction.
AAbhaasa: together with ardha-citra and citraabhaasa,
are completely misunderstood. Neither of these
is a material, but as explained by 'Srikumaara,
'Silparatna, Ch.64, vv. 2-6 (see my translation
in the Sir Ashutosh Mookerjee Memorial Volume),
and by Rao, Elements af Hindu Iconography, I,
p. 52, citing the Suprabhedaagama, a method.
Both the Maanasaara and Suprabhedaagama as
cited by the Professor himself are perfectly
clear on the point; as the matter is important,
I quote the latter:
Sarvaavayava-sa^mpuur.na^m d.r'sya^m tac citram
Ardhaavayava-sa^md Ardhaavayava-sa^md.r's ca
Pa.te bhittau ca yo(al) likhya^m(1)
citraabhaasam ihocyate (sic).
The mistake about aabhaasa has led to the
extraordinary view (Dict. p. 65, l. 3) that
aalekhya is also a material. Citra, in fact is
divided into citra, ardha-citra, and
citraabhaasa, respectively sculpture in the
round, reliefs, and paintiag. In Indian
architecture, p. 70, in the same connection
sarvaa^ngad.r'syamaana, rendered "quite
transparent," really means "in which all the
parts of the body are visible." Of course,
there are many cases where citra. by itself is
used to mean painting, but some of these need
critical examination; for example citraa.ni
ma.n.dalaani of Culllavagga, V, 9, 2 does not
mean "painted circular linings," as rendered in
S. B. E., XX, but simply "carved bowl-rests."
AAdhaara: add the meaning, "reservoir, "
Artha'saastra, III. 8 (Meyer).
Adhi.s.thaana, plinth: Mukherji, Report on the
Antiquities of the District of Lalitpur, 1899,
describes and illustrates the various parts and
mouldings. A few diagrams of this kind would
have greatly enhanced the value of the
AAjira: a courtyard, see Geiger, Mahava^msa, Ch.
XXXV, 3 and transl., p. 246.
AAlambana-baaha: the balustrade, vedikaa, of a stair-
way, sopaanaa, Cullavagga, V, 11. Cf. hasti-
hasta. AAlambana, per se, is the plinth of a
railing or balustrade.
AAlekhya: not in the Dictionary. See above under
aabhaasa. The working drawing, on cloth, for
the Lohapaasaada is thus designated in the
Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII, 10. AAlekhya-sthaana is
a space left in a manuscript for the subsequent
insertion of an illustration.
(1) ? yal lekhya^m. ˙
AAlinda: balcony, gallery. Cullavagga, VI, 3, 5,
glossed pamukha= pramukha: ib. VI, 14, 1,
described as hatthi-nakhaka^m, see hastinakha.
In Mahaava^msa, XXV, 3, the rendering of
aalinda as "terrace in front of a house door"
(Geiger, Mahaava^msa, p. 246, note 2) seems
AAmalaka: not in the Dictionary, though discussed in
the other volume, p. 179, where kala'sa, "vase"
(finial) is misrendered "dome." Not in the
Maanasaara, and the suggested equivalent
muurdhni-i.staka seems a little questionable. I
doubt if an example as finial could be cited
before the Gupta period, when it can be seen on
the reduced edifices of the Saarnaath lintel
(Sahni, Catalogue, pls. XV-XSVI); but these
imply an already well-established tradition.
The form is already employed architecturally in
connection with pilasters represented at
Amaraavatii. In Cullavagga, VI, 2, 4 a kind of
chair is termed aamalaka-va.n.tika-pi.t.ha^m,
and this is glossed by Buddbaghosa as "having
large aamalaka-formed feet attached to the
back." The translation "many feet" of S. B. E.
XX, 165, cited by Acharya without comment, can
hardly be justified, though Buddhaghosa's
bahupaada suggests it at first sight. Amongst
the countless representations of chairs and
couches in Indian art of all periods I cannot
think of a single example with more than four
A^ngana: applied to the enclosure surrounding a
stuupa, i. e. the circumambulation-platform
between the stuupa and its railing, Dhammapada
Atthakathaa, 290 (Bk. 21, Story 1, Burlingame,
H. O. S., vol. 30, p 175).
A.nldvaara: Artha'saastra, II, 3,.and III, 8. Meyer
renders "sidedoor," Shamctsastry "front door
." In III, 8, the latter meaning would seem
to be indicrtted, as only one door is mention-
ed, and the window above it is referred to. In
the early reliefs we see no side doors to
ordinary houses, while there is generally a
window above the single (front) door.
Aratni: add references to Kau.tiliya Artha'saastra,
II, 20, with a table of measurements
practically identical with that of the
Maanasaara. In Artha'saastra. II, 5, the rain
gauge (s.v. ku.n.da below) is to be an aratni
in width, i. e. 2 spans (vitasti) or 24
Argala: Pali aggala, Simhalese agula, a bolt. See
under dvaara below.
Arghya: not in the Dictionary. In Mahaava^msa, XXX,
92, Geiger's rendering of agghiya as "arches"
is impossible. Agghiya-panti may be rows of
garlands or swags, a. common enough ornament,
or more likely rows of vessels of some kind;
phalikagghiya must be a crystal dish or
platter, as it has four corners in which are
placed heaps (raasiyo) of gold, gems, or
pearls-but more likely we should understand
phalakagghiya and translate as "wooden offering
table" or "altar." In any case "four corners"
has no meaning in connection with any sort of
known torano. Agghika of Mhv. XXXIV, 73 is more
perhaps here equivalent to altars or reredos
(Si^mh. wahal-ka.d). See also agghiyac, agghika
in P. T. S. Pali Dictionary.
AAryaka-stambha: not in the Dictionary: but see under
aave.sanin, below, and Dictionary, p. 669.
AAsandii, a throne, seat: Atharva Veda, XV, 3 (see
Whitney, in H. 0. S., Vol. VIII), where the
various parts are named; the description sug
gests the types still seen at Amaraavati.
A detailed nomenclature of seats will be
found in Cullavagga, VI, 2. Cf. ib., VI, 14,
also Brahmajaala Sutta, (Dialogues, I, p. 11,
Paoe S. B. E. XVII, p. 27, it is by no means
demonstrable from Jaataka I, 108, that aasandi
means "cushion"; Cowell's "couch" is
undoubtedly correct, and this is the sense
everywhere else. To suppose a chair or couch
placed in a cart presents no difficulty.
A.t.taala: watch.-towers or gate-towers,
Milindapannha, V, 4. Gopura.t.thaa,
Mahaava^msa, XXV, 30. Gopura.t.taalaga,
Uttaraadhyayanasuutram, IX, 18, Charpentier,
pp. 97, 314.
Avasaraka: osaraka (Paali) (? that which sheds water)
overhanging eaves [of a building without
verandahs, anaalinda), Cullavagga, VI, 3, 5:
glossed as chadana-pamukha^m, "projecting from
the roof." Osaarake, "under the eaves," i. e.
outside the house, Jaataka;, 111, 446. Cf.
Ave.sa.nin: not in the Dictionary; architect,
foreman. Inscription on Saa~nci south tora.na,
"Gift of AAnanda, son of Vaasi.s.thi, dvesa.nin
(rendered " foreman of the artisans") of Raja
'Srii 'Saatakar.ni" (Marshall, Guide to Sanci,
p. 48). AAyaka (aaryaka)-stambhas dedicated by
Siddhaartha son of Naagacanda, both aavesa.nins
(Burgess, Notes on the Amaravati Stupa, p. 56);
aavesa is stated to mean a workshop, atelier.
Ayas: not in the Dictionary. This word is always used
for iron (see loha, below). Mahaava^msa, XXV,
28, ayo-kammata-dvaara, "iron studded gate" (of
a city); ib., 30, ayo-gula^m, "iron balls";
ib., XXIX, 8, ayo-jaala, an iron trellis used
in the foundations of a stuupa. Reference might
have been made to the iron pillars st Delhi and
Dhar, and the use of iron in building at
Bodhi-ghara, mahaabodhi-ghara: temples of the
Bodhi-tree, presumably like the many examples
illustrated in the early reliefs. No doubt a
pre-Buddhist form, preserved in connection with
the cult of the Bodhi tree. See Mahaava^msa,
XXXVI, 55, XXXVII, 31, etc.; in the former
place provided with a sand court, vaalikaatala;
ib., XXXV, 89 (a^ngana. Also called a
ma.n.dapa, ib., XVIII, 63.
Bodhi-ma.n.da (la): is treated as synonymous with
vajraasana, but is really the special area
within which the vajraasana is established; see
Hsan Tsang as cited by Watters, II, 114, 115.
Candra (-'saala) , etc.: some useful material is
contributed towards a solution of the problem
of the proper designation of the so-called
"caitya-window" (dormer or attic window, gable,
etc.), one of the
commonest and most distinctive motifs
recognizable in Indian architecture from first
to last. "Caitya-window" is unsatisfactory, as
the form is by no means peculiar to, nor can it
have been originally devised expressly for
caitya-halls; the gable form is derived from
that of an ordinary barrel-vaulted house end.
Tora.na is perhaps correct in so far as the
window is actually an arch, vaataayana in so
far as it is a window, but neither is
sufficiently specific. The problem is a little
complicated by the fact that we have to do both
with arched windows actually admitting air to
upper chambers, dormers, or attics, with real
internal space, and also with similar forms
used decoratively and placed in series on
cornices or similarly used in. friezes; but the
various architectural forms, complete figures,
or heads (see also gandharva-mukha, and g.rha)
which appear framed in the niche formed by the
window-arch prove that the idea of an opening
to internal space is always present. The best
established word is Tamil kuu.du
(Jouveau-Dubreuil, passim), but there seems to
be no similar word in Sanskrit; kuu.du means
nest, and it applies both to the window as an
ornament, and to actual pavilions
(kar.na-kuu.du, JouveauDubreuil, Dravidian
Architecture, fig. 4). The proper term in
Sanskrit seems to be candra-'saalaa (see s. v.
in the Dictionary), meaning either a gabled
chamber on or above the kapota (for which
candra is given as a synonym), or the goble
window itself. In the last case candra'salaa
should really be an abbreviation of
candra-'saala-vaataayana, and this seems to be
the most explicit designation: "gable-window"
is probably the best English phrase, German
A number of passages seem to show also that
gavaak.su may be synonymous with
candra-'saalaa-vaataayana. Thus in Raghuva^msa,
VII, 11, the gavaak.sas are crowded with the
faces of beautiful young women looking out, and
ib. XIX, 7, Agnivarman is visible to his
subjects only to the extent of hia feet hanging
down from the gavaak.sa. The modern vernacular
equivalent is of course jharokhaa.
The many-cusped arch, known to modern
Musalmctn masons as piyaalidar mihraab, and
familiar in Rajput, Mughal, and modern Indian
architecture, is a development of the
"horse-shoe" arch (gable window) which has
rightly been regarded as of Indian,
pre-Muhammasdan invention (Rivoira, Moslem
Architecture, p. 110f); every stage in the
evolution cas be followed. Cusped arches are
found already in Java by the eighth century
(Borobu.dur); there is an excellent example at
the Gal Vihaaree, Pa.lonnaaruva, Ceylon. It
would take too much space to treat this
interesting subject at length here, but it is
worth while to note that Mukherji, Antiquities
of the Lalipur District, I, p. 9, gives the
Indian terminology; the "parts of the so-called
Saracenic (five-foiled) arch, are all Hindu."
These names are, for the spring of the arch,
naaga (cf. naaga-bandha. in the sense ot
chamfer-stop); for the foils or cups, ka.tora;
and for the top, cuukaa (? = cuulikaa, q.v. in
Ca^nkrama: cloister, monk's walk, at first perhaps
only paved, later roofed and railed
(Cullavagga, V, 14, 2, 3). Ca^nkamana-saalaa,
"hall in a cloister," Cullavagga, V, 14, 2 and
Mahaavagga, III, 5.
Cetiya-ghara: in Mahaava^msa, XXXI, 29, and 60, 61,
cetiya-ghara is a structure built over a
stuupa, thuupain tassopari ghara^m. Some have
seen evidence of such a structure in the still
standing tall pillars surrounding the The
Thuupaaraama Daagaba at Anuraadhapura, and this
interpretation seems to be plausible,
especially as the pillars are provided with
tenons above. An actual example of a stuupa
with a roof over it, supportad by four pillars,
can be seen at Ga.dalaadeniya, near Kandy,
Ceylon. The old caitya-halle are also, of
course, cetiya-gharas, and of these there
existed also many structural examples. "
Thuupaghara... is simply a house over a tope"
(Hocart, A.M., Ceylon. Journ. Science, G., Vol.
I, p 145).
Channavira: some description might have been given of
this very common ornament, found from
pre-Mauryan times to the present day. See Rao,
Elements of Hindu Iconography,I,p. xxxi, and M.
F. A. Bulletin, No. 152, p. 90. The channavira
passes over both shoulders and both hips,
crossing and fastening in the middle of the
breast and middle of the back; it is worn by
deities and men, male and female, and occurs
also in Java.
Citra: art, ornament, sculpture, painting, see above
under aabhaasa. Citra, citra-karma do not
always mesn painting. Some places where the
word occurs and has been so translated need
rexamination; for example, Cullavagga, V, 9,
2, citraa.ni ma.n.dalaani does not mean
"painted circular linings," but rather "carved
bowl-rests." Some referencee should be given to
citra-sabhaa, citra-'saala which are of very
common occurrence in the sense "painted hall or
chamber." The citta-sabhaa of Jacobi,
Ausgewhlte Erzhlungen, p. 39, has a high
tower (uttunga siharaa). Description of a.
citta-sabhaa cited from the Uttaraadhyayana
Suutra, Meyer, Hindu Tales, p. 174.
Cittaagaara, in Sutta Vibha^nga, II, 298.
Cuulikaa: as something at the top must be connected
with cuu.daa. But in Maanasaana, L. 301,
(Dict., p. 197) , lamba-haaram api
cuulikaadibhi.h, cuulikaa must be "bodice,"
and synonymous with co.laka.
Daraninavami-'silaa: not in the Dictionary. A square
stone (or rarely bronze) slab or box divided
into nine compartments in which are placed
symbols connected with water, the whole being
laid below the foundations of a temple or below
an image (A. S. I., A. R.., 1903-04 p. 98,
note). This object is known in Ceylon as a.
yantra-gala, where several examples have been
found (Parker, Ancient Ceylon, pp. 298, 658;
Mem. Colombo Museum, Series A, I, p. 25).
Deva-kula: in the Avadaana-'sataka (Feer, p. 98),
used of a temple of Naaraay.na. See also A. S.
I., A. R.., 1911-12, p. 124. Devakula of
the Naaga Dadhikar.na, Mathuraa inscription,
Luders' List, No. 63. Inscription of
Lo.naa'sobhikaa on Mathuraa aayaagapata, see VI
Int. Congr. Orientalists, III, p. 143.
Dhavala, whitening: applied to a plastered or other
surface, 'silparatna, Ch. 64. Dhavala-hara, a
"White House, " palace, Haribhadra,
Sanatkumaaracarita, 548, 599, 608.
Drupada: a post,.Rg Veda, 3, 32, 33. The whole
passage is very doubtful, but apparently
two horses are compared to carved figures of
some kind (brackets? )upon a wooden post.
Dvaara: the parts of a door are listed in Cullavagga,
V, 14, 3, also ib. VI, 2 (not quite correctly
translated in S. B. E., XX, p. 106), as
follows: kavaa.ta, the leaves;
prasthaasa^mgha.tikaa, "upstanding pair"), the
door-posts; udukhallika, threshold;
uttarapaasaka, Iintel; aggalava.t.ti,
bolt-post; kapi-siisaka, bolt (-handle) ;
suucika, the pin or part of the kapi-siisa
which fits into the socket in the bolt-post
(cf. suuci = cross-bar of a vedikad) ;
gha.tikaa, apparently the slot in the bolt-post
juat referred to; taalacchidda, key-hole;
aavi~nchana-rajju, string for pulling the
leaves to from outside preparatory to locking.
Some of these terms occur elsewhere; with
reference to a passage in the Mahaaparinibbaana
Sutta where AAnanda leans against the
kapi-siisaka Buddhaghosa is certainly right in
glossing kapi-sisaka as aggala, for the
Si^mhalese agula is big enough to lean against
(see my Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, figs. 80-82,
for illustrations, ib. p. 133, for the
Sinhalese terminology). As in so many other
cases the terms are perfectly comprehensible
when the objects have been seen as represented
in relief, or in use, and when the modern
technical terms are known.
As correctly observed in S. B. E., XX, p.
160, dvaara is "doorway," "aperture," always
with reference to outer doors or gates of any
building, or of a city, while kavaa.ta means
the leaves of a door, the door itself.
See also under g.rha, and cf. Robert knox's
description of the palace? of Raaja Si^mha II,
"stately Gates, two-leaved ... with their
posts, excellently carved."
Bahi-duaala-saaIaa = bahir-dvaara-'saalaa,
"outer room," "gate chamber," Mrcchaka.tika,
From RV. I, 51, 14 we get duryo yupa.h for
the door posts, from RV. I, 113, 14 aataa for
the door leaves, and from RV. III. 61. 4 a
thong (syuuman) fastening.
Dvaara-baahaa: door posts, Mahaava^msa, XXV, 38:
ayo-dvaara, ayo-kammatadvaara, ib. XXV, 28, 29,
Dvaara-ko.t.thaka, gate house: cittakuu.ta dvaara-ko
.t.thaka, etc., "a gate-house
(2) See S. B. E. XX, p. 105, note 2.
with a. decorated peak, and surrounded by
statues of Indra, as though guarded by tigers,"
Jaataka, VI, 125: cf. Dhammapada Atthathaa, Bk.
2, story 7.
For ko.t.thaka see also Cullavagga, V, 14,
4 and VI, 3, 10; Jaataka, I, 351 and II, 431;
and Meyer, Artha'saastra, p. 75, note 5 (in the
sense of "shrine") . Ko.t.thaka is usually
"gatehouse, " but pi.t.thiko.t.thaka is
"back-room" in Dhammapada Atthakathaa, II, 19.
In Jaataka I, 227, dvaara-ko.t.thaka is, as
usual, gate-house, not as interpreted in S. B.
E. XVII, 219, 'mansion' (the 'mansion' is ghara
and it has seven dvaara-ko.t.thakas).
Gaairikaa: red chalk. Cullavagga, V, 11, 6, geruka,
red coloring for walls. Medium red color,
'Silparatna, Ch. 64, 117. Brown, Indian
painting under the Mughals, p. 124 (used in
preprtring the lekhanii or pencil). Used as
rouge, Karpuurama~njari, III, 18, see H. O. S.,
Vol. 4, note on p. 268. as a pigment,
dhaatu-raaga, Meghaduuta, 102. Geruka,
Culllavagga, V, 11, 6, VI, 3, 1, and VI, 17, 1.
Mahaavagga, VII, 11, 2.
Ga.n.da-bhera.n.da: insufficiently explained by the
cross-reference to stambhu. The two-headed
eagle, a gigantic bird of prey, is first found
in India on a Jaina stuupa base st Sirkap
(Marshall, Guide to Taxila, p. 74) . In
mediaeval art two forms appear, analogous to
those of garu.das, one with a human body and
two bird heads, the other entirely bird.
Connected especially with the kings of
Vijayanagar, and appearing on their coins,
carrying elephants in its claws. Other examples
at 'Sri'saailam (A. S. I.., A. R.., Southern
Circle, 1917-18) ; remarkable panels st
Korama^ngala and Beluur, Caa.lukyan (Mysore A.
S. Rep., 1920, and Narasimachar, Ke'sava temple
at Beluur, p. 8). A common motif in south
Indian jewellery. In Ceyion, see my Mediaeval
Sinhalese art, p. 85. Cf. also
hatthilinga-saku.na, Dhammapada Atthakathaa, 1,
164. Further references will appear in the
Boston Catalogue of Mughal Paintings.
Gandha-ku.ti, see s. v. Ku.ti.
Gandharva-mukha: designation of the busts or faces
framed in the openings of kuu.du,
candra-'saalaa-vaataayana, or gavaak.sa, gable
windows (Jouveau-Dubreuil, Dravidian
Architecture, p. 12). Cf. canda-muha, S. V.
Gavaak.sa: see Candra, Gandharva-mukha, G.rha, and
G.rha, ghara, aagaara, geha, etc.: there is an
excellent description of Vasantasenaa's house
(geha, bhavana) in the M.rcchaka.tika, IV, 30,
seq. There are eight courts (pao.t.thaa =
prako.s.tha) ;(3) above the outer door
(geha-dvara) is an ivory tora.na, supported by
tora.na-dhra.na-tham-bha, and stretching up
its head (siisa) towards the sky; at each side
are festival jars (ma^ngala-kalasa) -- "Yes,
Vasantasenaa's house is a beautiful thing." In
the first court are paasaada-panti, rows of
pavilions, having stairways (sobaa.na), and
crystal windows (pha.ti-
(3) Paali paku.t.ta, Cullavagga VI, 3, 5 is rendered
"inner verandahs" in S. B. E., XX, p. 175.
vaa.da = spha.tika-vaataayana) with
moon-faces (muhe-cande), or probably "faces on
the candra, " i. e. gandharva-mukhas framed in
the candra'saalaa-vataayanas ornamenting the
roll-cornice, for which the description "
seeming to look down upon Ujjayinii " would be
very appropriate. In the third court are
courtezans carrying pictures painted in many
colors, vivihava.n.ni-aavalitta citraphala
=vividhavar.nikaavalipta citraphalaka. In the
fourth court, where music and dancing take
place, there are water-coolers (salila-gagario
=salilogargaraya.h) hanging from the ox-eye
Tisalaa's palace in the Kalpa Suutra, 32,
is a vaasa-ghara, dwelling place; it is
sacitta-kamme, decorated with pictures, and
ulloya-cittiya, has a canopy of painted cloth
(cf. Paali ulloka).
Milindapa~nha, II, 1, 13 has "As all the
rafters of the roof of a house go up to the
apex, slope towards it, are joined together at
The famous triumph song of the Buddha
(Nidaanakathaa, Jaataka, 1, 76 = Dhammapada,
154) has " Broken are all thy beams (phaasuka),
the housetop (gaha-kuu.ta) shattered": the
housebuilder is gahakaaraka.
See also Bodhighara, Cetiyaghara,
Cittaagaara, Dhavala, Kuu.taagaara,
Harmya: ramya^m harmyam, a beautiful palace, Vikrama
Carita (Edgerton, text and transl. in H. O. S.
26, p. 258, and 27, p. 239) has the following
parts: muulaprati.s.thaana, basement;
bhitti-stambha-dvaaratora.na, walls, pillars,
doorways and arches; 'saalabha~njikaa, statues;
praa^nga.na, courts; kapaa.ta, folding doors;
parigha, door-bars;(4) valabhi, roofs;
vi.ta^nka, cornices; naaga-danta, pegs;
mattavaara.na, turrets; gavaak.sa, ox-eye
windows; sopaana, stairs;
nandyaavartaadi-g.rha, pavilions (? ) (see
Dictionary, s.v.). Harmikaa, the little equare
structure on the top of a stuupa.
(Divyuvadaana) . A cross reference to
raaja-harmya should be given in the Dictionary.
Harmya, dwelling, Atharva Veda, XVIII, 4, 55; RV. I,
121, 1, I, 166, 4, VII, 56, 16, etc.
Savitaana-harmya, Raghuva^msa, XIX, 39, "place
with an awning"; or perhaps vitaana = modern
Hasti-hasta, gaja-hasto: amongst innumerable examples
might be cited one at Naaraaya.npur, Burgess,
A. S. W. I., III, pl. XXXI, 3. Elephanttrunk
balustrades in Ceylon are et-ho.n.da-vel, with
the same sense as hasti-hasta.
Hasti-nakha: literally "elephant's nail." In Culla-
vagga, VI, 14, 1 a paasaada having an
aalinda (balcony, gallery), qualified as
hatthinakhaka^m, is a permitted monastic
residence. According to Buddhaghosa's gloss
this means hatthi-kumbha pati.t.thita^m,
literally " supported on elephants' frontal
globes," and so to be rendered "supported
by pillars having elephant capitals"; and
this is plausible enough,
(4) But see Parikhaa, usually, and perhaps here also,
as pillars with elephant capitals, supporting
galleries and upper storeys, are highly
characteristic of early Indian architecture. It
is true that one hesitates to accept nakha in
any other sense than that of "nail" or "claw."
But it is possible to retain the interpretation
"elephant capital" without supposing that nakha
= kumbha, for in fact the observer, standing at
the foot of such columns, e. g. at Be.dsaa (see
accompanying Plate), and looking upwards, sees
nothing of the actual capital, except the under
sides and nails of the fore feet of the
elephants, which project beyond the edge of the
abacus, and this may well have given rise to
the term "elephant's nail" as applied to
On the other hand, hasti-nakha occurring in
the 'Si'supaalavadha, III. 68, 'Sanairaniyanta
rayaapatanto rathaa.h. k.siti^m hastinakhaat...
tura^ngai.h, "the swift chariots are slowly
brought down from the hastinakha to earth by
the horsee," seems to refer to a place or
structure on the rampart. Amara's gloss is
puurdvaari m.rtkuu.ta,h "a kuu,ta made of earth
at the city gate."
The word also occurs in Kau.tiliya
Artha'saastra, p. 53 of Shamasastry, the
Dictionary citing only Shamasastry's
translation s.v. g.rha-vinyaasa. Here too,
hasti-nakhas are connected with the gate and
rampart of a fort. Meyer's version, p. 71,
given here with slight modification, is much to
be preferred: " For access, an 'Elephant's
nail,' level with the opening of the gateway,
and a drawbridge (sa^mkrama.h sa^mhaaryo); or
in case there is no water (for a moat), a
causeway made of earth." The hasti-nakha is
here then presumably a pillar with an elephant
capital, standing in the moat, to receive the
drawbridge when the latter is let down upon it,
or pushed out onto it.(5) It is not impossible
that the term hasti-nakha, by an extension of
the original and strict meaning, had come to be
applied also to the drawbridge itself, and
even to the causeway.
The 'Si'supaalavadha passage would then
imply simply the bringing of the chariots
across the drawbridge, or, as understood by
Amara, across the causeway of earth which takes
its place when there is no water; and thence
onto the solid ground.
Cf. Ke'sanakha-stuupa, s. v. Stuupa, not
explained (Feer, Avadaana 'Sataka, p. 487), but
possibly with some reference to a lion capital.
Hasti-praakaara, see Praakaara.
Hasti-prstha gaja-p.r.s.tha: this appropriate name is
applied to the buildings with apsidal
structures, common in Pallava, Cola, and later
Dravidian work (see accompanying Plate). The
reference on p. 159 to Indian Antiquary XII
should be corrected to XL. On p. 398
hastip.r.s.tha single-storeyed buildings are
said to have an "oval steeple"; read instead
"apsidal roof." The Professor elsewhere often
refers to oval buildings, perhaps meaning
apsidal; an oval plan is unknown to Indian
(5) Or, if we read asa^mhaaryo, then supporting a
Jantaaghara: hot bath room, Mahaava^msa, XV, 3l, not
in the Dictionary, though described without
citation of the term, Indian Architecture, p.
14. S. B. E. XIII, p. 157,
note 2. Cullavagga, V, 14, 3 and VIII, 8, 1;
Mahaavagga, 1. 25, 12-13.
Ka.da^nkara, Paali ka.li^ngaraa: plank of a stairway,
sopaana, Cullavagga, v, 21, 2.
Kalaa: no reference to the kalaas; see
Venkatasubbiah, A., The Kalas, Madras, 1911,
and do, with E. Mller, in J. R. A. S., 1914.
The lists include such items as nagaramaa.nam,
vatthunivesam, daarukriyaa, etc.
Kalaabhara: artist, expert. According to the Gautama
Dharma-suutra, VI, 16, the kalaabhara who is
five years older than oneself should be greeted
with respect as bho.h or bhavan. Haradatta
explains kalaabhara as one who lives by the
kalaas, i. e. the knowledge of music, painting,
leaf-cutting and the like.
Ka~ncuka: ka~ncuka^m... silaamaya^m of Mahaava^msa,
XXXIII, 25, is evidently rightly translated by
Geiger as "a mantling made of stone" (for the
Hhandhathupa) . This muat be the correct
designation for the "casing" and "casing slabs"
Kapota: should be translated "roll-cornice, "
"larmier." It is the main cornice of a.
building, derived from the edge of the thatch
and the primitive drip-stone cut above cave
dwellings to prevent the rain from running in.
The synonyms of kapota, candra, lupaa, gopaana,
are significant; see candra-'saalaa. The
rendering of kapota by "spout" should be
avoided. As paalikaa is abacus, kapota-paalikaa
should be a fillet above the kapota. Kern is
undoubtedly right in rejecting the meaning
"dove-cot," so also in the case of vi.ta.nka.
M.rcchaka.tika, I, 51 has kavaalapa-vi.ta^nka,
glossed kapota-paalikaa uparigrrha and
translated in H. O. S. "dove-cot"; "dove-ridge"
would be better. In reliefs, birds are commonly
represented ae perched on roofs and mouldings.
Utpala's definition of kapota-paalikaa quoted
on p. 111 of the Dictionary, amounting to
"corbel-ended timbers above the kapota" is
quite intelligible, as these being seen end on,
and coming between the top of the kapota, and
the bottom of the next member above (as often
represented in the early reliefs), are related
to the kapota precisely as the abacus is
related to the rest of the capital below it and
the entablature above it.
Kappiya-bhuumi: not in the Dictionary. "Outhouse
site, " Mahaavagga, VI, 33, 2 = S. B. E., XVII,
Karmaara, Paali kammaara, Mahavagga 1, 48 etc.,
Sinhalese kammaalar: not in the Dictionary.
Artisan, smith, etc. Kammaara-bha.n.du, workers
in metals, Mahaavagga, I,48, 1. Highly esteemed
by king and people, Jaataka, III, 281. The
viceroy of Krr.s.naraaya of Vijayanagar exempt-
ed ka.nmaa. lars from taxation (A. S. I., A.
R.., 1908-09, p. 184). Prakrit Kamaara, see
Charpentier, Uttaraadhyayanasuutram, p. 361.
See also my Indian Craftsman, and Mediaeval
Sinhalese Art. Kammmaara-saalaa, smithy.
Kar.na-kiila, "the ear rod, fastened with iron
(nails) , along the sides of a house, and
according to which the house is to be built, "
Artha'saastra, III, 8. Probably the frame-work
of four beams which rests on stone supports,
cf. Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, Pl. VII, fig. 7,
at the level of the man's waist.
Ka.taka: add, a position of the fingers used in
dancing, and seen in the hands of images
holding flowers. See Rao, Elements of Hindu
Iconography, I, p. 16; and Mirror of Gesture,
p. 31. In this sense, synonymous with
Ka.ti-suutra: in the sense of girdle, Cullavagga. V,
2, 1. Technical terms for special forms, ib. V,
Keyuura: armlet, cf. kaayura in Cullavagga, IV, 2, 1,
S. B. E. XX, p. 69.
Kha.n.da door (the actual leaf or leaves) ,
Artha'sastra, III, 8. Meyer makes it a single
leaf. Shamassstry renders as equivalent to
kavaa.ta; the choice depends on the meaning
assigned to a.nidvaara in the same passage. The
door in any case would open inwards, hence
Meyer's rendering with reference to the
obstruction of space between two houses cannot
be quite correct.
Ki~ncikkha-paasaa.na: Mahava^msa, XXXIV, 69, stones
apparently used as paving slabs round a stuupa,
probably so called as being very smooth (cf.
Skt. ki~njalka, filaments of a lotus). Childers
gives the form ki~njakkha-paasaa.na.
Ki^nkini-jaalaya: network of bells adorning a
vedikaa, Mahaava^msa, XXVII, 16. Often seen on
Bharhut and other early rail-copings.
Kiirti-vaktra: add synonymns kiirti-mukha,
makara(i) -vaktra, makara-patra, si^mha-mukha;
and Sinhalese kibihi, and kaala-makara of Dutch
archaeologists. The inclusion of the term in
the Maanasaara shows that the text cannot
antedate the Gupta period, for the makara face
as the crowning element of a tora.na. is not
developed before that time at the earliest, the
crowning element in earlier types being plain
or having the form of a tri'suula or
Ko'sa-g.rha, store room, treasury: has triple
underground cellar with many chambers, amongst
which is a devataa-vidhaana, or chapel, with
images of the Vaastu-devataa, Kubera, etc.,
Artha'sastra, II, 5.
Ko.s.thaagaara: a pair of storehouses are referred to
by this name in the Sohgaura plaque
inscription, and illustrated on the same plaque
(Fleet, in JRAS, 1907). They are described as
trigarbha, having three rooms; Fleet discusses
this at length, but it is evident from the
illustrations that these rooms are on three
storeys, for the storehouses are represented as
small three-storeyed pavilions; it is true that
the roof of the top storey is "out of the
picture," but its supporting pillars can be
clearly eeen. For another use of garbha as
designating chambers of a many-storeyed
building see under Praasaada, the Lohapaasaada.
See also prako.s.tha, s. v. g.rha,
dvaara-ko.t.thaka, and ku.n.da.
Kuudu, see s. v. candra-'saalaa.
Kumbha (and kala'sa): I cannot see any evidence in
the texts cited to justify the translation
"cupola." The jar in question has actually
always the form of a jar, and is placed above
the dome, cupola, spire, aamalaka, roof-ridge,
or whatever otherwise forms the top of a
building. Kumbha also = temples of an elephant,
see s. u. hasti-nakha.
Kun.da: a bowl used as a rain-gauge (vor.samaana;)
and placed in front of s granary
(ko.s.thaagaara) (Kau.tilya, Artha'saastra, II,
Ku.n.dikaa: should be equated with kama.n.dalu (not
in the Dictionary) and explained as the
water-pot carried by Brahmanical hermits and
Buddhist monks, and provided with two openings,
one a funnel at the side for filling, the other
at the top of the neck, which is also the
handle. Many examples have been found on Indian
Buddhist monastic sites. The ku.n.dikaa is
carried only by deities of ascetic type
especially Brahmaa and 'Siva, and by.r.sis, and
should not be confused with the am.rta-kala'sa,
which has only one opening, and is carried by
other deities, especially Indra and Maitreya. A
full discussion of the Indian and Chinese forms
by the present writer and F. S. Kershaw will
appear in Artibus Asiae.
Kuutaagaara: regarding the kuu.taagaara-saalaa in the
Mahaali Sutta of the Digha Nikaaya,
Buddhaghosa, Suma^ngala-Vilaasinii, p. 309, has
the following, which I quote here from a letter
received from Mre. Rhys Davids: "In that wood
they established a Sa^mgha-park. There, having
joined the ka.n.nikaa (ear-thing, corner of the
upper storey) of the pillars (thambha, lit.
supports) above by the sa^mkhepa (holding
together, fastening together) of the
kuu.taagaara-saalaa, they made the paasada
(terraced or balconied mansion) like to a
mansion of devas. With reference to this the
Sa^mgha-park was known as the
Kuu.taagaara-saalaa." Here, cf. sa^mkhepa with
k.sepa.na in the sense of cornice; but I
suspect a reference to brackets connecting
pillars and ka.n.nikaa (the Dictionary has
kar.nikaa = upper part of the entablature);
such brackets are very frequently represented
in the errly reliefs (Bhsrhut and Saa~ncii).
Acharya's Index has no entry under "bracket,"
but there must have been a word or words in use
for so common a, structural feature.
Geiger's "balconied windows" for
kuu.taagaara, in Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII, is
scarcely satisfactory; the paasaada of nine
storeys has 100 kuu.taagaras on each storey,
and little paviliona, pa~njara or (candra)
-'saalaa seem to be meant, such as are very
common in Pallava architecture; e. g. at
Maamallapuram, and cf. Jouveau-Dubreuil,
Dravidian Architecture, fig. 4. The pavilion
occupied by the Bodhisattva while in his
mother's womb is called a kuu.taagaara (Lalita.
Vistara, Ch. VII).
As Paali pa.n.na-kuti and pa.n.na-saalaa
are synonymous designations of hermits huts,
and as these are always single-storeyed cells,
it follows that kuu.ta-'saalaa need not be a
room on the top of a building.
I am inclined to suppose that kuu.taagaara
generally means simply "a
house with a finial (or finials)." Cf. kuu.ta,
"finial" (vase) in inscriptions cited in Dict.,
p. 708. Gaha-kuu.ta, Jaataka, I, 76. In Ceylon
in the eighteenth century the use of such
finials was permitted only in the case of
devaales, vihaares, resthouses, and the houses
of chiefs of Disaawa or higher rank. On this
analogy the ultimate meaning of kuu.taagaara
would be "honorable building." In all the
early reliefs, palaces, city gates, temples,
etc., are duly provided with finials, while
village houses lack them..
Ku.ti: not in the Dictionary as a separate word, but
In the 'suulagava (=I'suunabali) ritual of
the G.rhya Suutras (citations in Arbmann,
Rudra, pp. 104 ff.) ku.ti = aayatana in the
sense of shrines erected for II'saana,
Mi.dhu.sii and Jayanta.
Under gandhaku.ti add: see full discussion
in A. S. I., A. R., 1906-07, pp. 97-99, with
muulagandhaku.ti and 'sailagandhaku.ti cited
from Saarnaath inscriptions. Reference should
also be made to the Saa~ncii relief, north
tora.na, left pillar, front, second panel,
showing the Jetavana, garden with the
Gandhaku.ti, Kosambaku.ti, and Karoriku.ti
(Marshall, Guide to Sanchi, p. 58), " the three
favourite residences of the Buddha." Further
references: Kern, Manual of Indian Buddhism, P.
28; Cunningham, A. S. I., Reports, XI, pp. 80
ff.; Sahni and Vogel, Sarnath Catalogue, P. 19,
211; Crnwedel, Buddhist Art in India, p.16.
In the Ma.nimekhalai the small temple of
Campaapatii, patron deity of Puhaar, is called
Kappiya-ku.ti, vacca-ku.ti, Cullavagga, VI, 4, 10.
Lepa: medium, glue, should be distinguished from
sudhaa, plaster. Vajralepa, "adamantine
medium, " actually glue, see recipe in the
'Silparatna, Ch. 64 (my translation in Sir
Ashutosh Mookerjee Memorial Volume); Mediaeval
Sinhalese Art, pp. 118, ll9. Cf. Uttara
Ramacarita, III, 40.
Sudhaa-lepya, plaster and paint, Bodhgayaa,
6th-7th century inscription, S. I., A. R.,
1908-09, p. 154.
Likh: additional to the common meanings is that of
"turning" (wood, etc.). S. B. E., XX, 78, note
3, is wrong in supposing that turning was
unknown to ancient India. Metal, wood, and
ivory are all turned at the present-day by
means of hand-power devices quite unlike the
European lathe (see Mediaeval Sinhalese Art,
P1. VI, fig. 4, for ivory, and remarks ib. p.
141) ; turned stone pillars are highly
characteristic of Caa.lukyan architecture (cf.
Rea, Chalukyan Architecture,: p 5); and turning
is certainly involved in the manufacture of
many objects represented in early reliefs. It
is significant that the Sinhalese name of the
grooved spindle used in turning is liyana
kanda, and the word liyana corresponds to
likhitum used in Cullavagga, V, 8, 1 and V, 9,
2 with reference to turned wooden bowls and
bowlrests. A meaning, "to turn wood, etc."
should therefore be given in Pali and Sanskrit
dictionaries under likh. S. B. E., loc cit.,
to escape the meaning "turning" goes so far as
to speak of using an adze on metal; a comical
idea, if regarded from the standpoint of
Another reference to turning will be found
in the Mahaasatipa.t.thaana Suttanta (D. N. II,
291 = Dialogues, 2, p. 328), " even as a
skilful turner (bhamakaara) "; the simile,
("drawing his string out at length," etc.),
implies the actually surviving Sinhalese
Steatite boxes "turned on the lathe," found
at Bhii.taa and assigned to the eighth century
B. C., are described in A. S. I., A. R.,
1911-12, pp. 43, 93. For some other references
to early turned objects see Ruupam, 32, pp.
Li^nga: the following references are of interest in
connection with the Deva-Raaja cult in Java and
Cambodia: Simpson, in JRAS, 1888 cites numerous
instances and regular practice of ereding
lingams over the burial places of dead
sannyaasis. In A. S. I., Southern Circle,
1911-12, p. 5 " sannyaasins are not cremated,
but buried, linga shrines or brindaavana being
raised to mark the spot." Ib. 1915-16, p. 34,
quoting S. I. Ep., 1914, " In the case of
Sannyaasins...a raised masonry platform is
sometimes set up over the place of burial, on
which a tulsi plant is grown, or a atone lingam
is set up as though to proclaim to the world
that the body buried below has attained to the
sacred form of 'Siva-linga." E. Carpenter,
Light from the East, being Letters... by the
Hon. P. Arunachalam, 1927, p.63, quoting a
letter from the latter regarding the tomb of
his guru, "On the site where his body is
interred is a lingam to which the worship is
offered as to the Master." For the Deva-Raaja
cult and its supposed South Indian origin see
F. D. K. Bosch, "Het Lingaheiligdom van Dinaja,
" Tijdschr. T. L. en Volkenkunde, LIV, 1924.
Loha: is not iron, but brass or copper, bronze, etc.
I do not think that any example of an Indian
Image made of iron could be cited, The roofing
of the Lohapaasaada (Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII)
was of copper or bronze. In Mahaava^msa, XXIX,
11, loha-pa.t.ta is a sheet of copper used in
the foundations of a stuupa, but we find ib.
12, ayo-jaala when an iron trellis is
designated. One of the most important
architectural references to loha is
Mahendravarman I's inscription at
Ma.n.dagapattu (Jouveau-Dubreuil, Conjeevaram
Inscription of Mahendravarman I, Pondicherry,
1919); here brick, timber, loha, and mortar are
mentioned as customary building materials.
Copper nails are common finds on ancient sites.
Other examples of loha will be found in the
Dictionary under aabhaasa (! ) . Cf. also
Si^mhalese pas-lo, an alloy of flve metals.
Lo.s.ta: the use of lo.s.ta, probably slag, in
preparing a ki.t.ta-lekhanii, should be noted
('silparatna, Ch. 64).
Makara-tora.na: hardly an arch "marked" with a makara,
but one springing from two makaras, and usually
crowned by a full-faced makara or makarii.
Ma~nca: cf. ta^nkita ma~nca, stone couch, the altar
of a yakkhacetiya, viz. the bhavana. of the
Yakkha, Suciloma (Sa^myutta Nikaaya, X, 3, P.
T. S., ed. p. 207), glossed paasaana-ma~nca,
thus synonymous with 'silaa-pa.t.ta, see my
Yak.sas, p. 20, note 3 (veya.d.di).
See also S. B. E., XX, 87, note 2, ib.,
168, note 3; and 278, note 3; Mahaava^msa,
XXVII, 39. Also Geiger, Mahava^msa,
translation, p 204, note 3; the text has
bodhi^m ussiisaka^m... sayana^m but this means
the vajraasana at the foot of the Bodhi tree
(the description is of the Maaradhar.sa.na),
certainly not the Parinibbaa.na ma~nca.
He.t.thaama~nca, Jaataka, 1, 197, probably the
earthen bench outside a hut. Ma~nca.t.thaana,
space for a couch, Culluvagga, VI, 11, 3
(Commentary). Cf. s. v. Pa.t.ta, Sthaana and
Vedikaa. Re S. B. E., XX, 278, note 3, I see no
reason why the pa.tipaadaka of a ma~noa should
not be fixed legs; no ancient representations
or modern examples have trestles. The only
trestles occur in connection with tables
(hatthapii.tha of Suma^ngala Vilaasinii, II,
20, text 1, 163, and as seen on early reliefs)
and modern da.n.daasana (Mediaeval Sinhalese
Art, P1. X, 1). Pii.tha of the Cullavagga may
include both kattka. pi.tha and paadaĝ, tables
and footstools, hardly "chairs."
The fact that ma~nca. and pi.tha were
cleaned by beating does not prove that they
were stuffed or upholstered: the actual support
may have been made then as now of plaited cane
or plaited webbing and anyone who has had
experience of such beds will realise that they
frequently need airing and beating.
Meru: reference should be given to E. B. Havell, The
Himalayas in. Indian Art, and W. Foy, "Indische
Kultbauten als Symbole des Gtterbergs, "
Festschrift Ernst Windisch, 1914.
Naaga-bandha: is said to be a kind of window, and
this would evidently be a perforated window
with a design of entwined serpents; there are
some in the early Caa.lukyan temples, and one
more modern is illustrated in the Victoria and
Albert Museum, List of Acquisitions, 1926, fig.
74. Cf. Si^mhalese naaga-dangaya. But
naaga-bandha also means both in Ceylon and in
southern India, the stop of a chamfer
(Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, pp. 88, 129, and
Jouveau-Dubreuil, Dravidian Architecture, pp.
10, 25, 42 and fig. 17); this stop often
approximates in shape to a cobra's hood. Cf.
naaga, s. v. candra-'saalaa.
Nagara: add reference to the detailed description of
a city in Milindapa~nha, V, 4 (also ib. I, 2
and II, 1, 9); the terms nagara-va.d.dhaki,,
da.lha-gopura, gopur-a.t.taala, ko.t.thaka,
deva.t.thaana occur. Another good description
of a city is cited in Barnett, Antaga.da
Dasaao, p. 1, from the Aupapaatika Suutra.
Naagara: the meaning "secular" as contrasted with
satya, "sacred, " vai.nika, "lyrical, " and
mi'sra, "mixed," should be cited from the
Vi.s.nudharmottara, in relation to painting.
Naaraaca,. etc.: the Dictionary has only "a road
running east." In the
Sthaanaanga Stra(6) we have vajja-risaha-
naraya-sa^nghaya.ne = vajra.r.sabha-naaraaca-
sa^nghaya.ne, meaning "with joints firmly knit
as if by mortise, collar, and pin." Hoernle,
Uvaasagadasaao cites Abhayadeva's Sanskrit
commentary, according to which vajja= kiilika,
risaha= parive.s.tana pa.t.ta or encircling
collar, naaraaya= ubhayato-marka.tabandha. or
double tenon and mortise joint, and
sa^nghaya.na=scarfjoint, five kinds being
enumerated (for illustration of one see
Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, fig. 75). One would
have thought that vajja simply meant "firmly."
As regards parive.s.tana pa.t.ta cf.
Mahaavagga, V, 11, "Now at that time the
Vihaaras were bound together by thongs of
skin," explained by Buddhaghosa (cited S. B.
E., XVII, p. 31) as referring to the tying
together of bhitti-da.n.dakaadi "wall posts;
eto." This would seem to have been natural in
the case of tho wattle and daub walls of the
simple pa.n.na-saalaas; but we do also find
early pillars decorated with designs of
interlacing ropes or thongs which may be
vestigial ornament, and the roof of the shrine
of tho Turbanrelic at Saa~nci (south gate, left
pillar, inner face) is bound by crossing
ligatures which could only be described as
parive.s.tana pa.t.ta. Atharva Veda, IX, 3
refers to the parts of a house that are knotted
and tied (naddha) . A house ('saalaa) with
grass sides has beams (va^m'sa), ties (nahana)
and binding (praa.naaha), clamps (sa^mda^m'sa)
and "paladas " and "pari.sva~njalaya." See also
Cf. Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, p. 114, "Nails
were not used in ordinary building, but
everything was fastened with rattans and other
jungle ropes." This refers to modern village
Nayanonmiilana: p. 88 in Indian Architecture: my
detailed account of the netra-ma^ngalya
ceremony should be cited, Mediaeval Sinhalese
Art, p. 70 f.
Paaduka: should be cited also in the sense of sacred
footprints, used ae a symbol ('Sriipaada,
Vi.s.nupaada, etc.). The vacca-paaduka of a
latrine are slso of interest, see S. B. E.,
XVII, p. 24; good examples have been found on
monastery sites in Anuraadhapura. Cf.
vacca-ku.ti. Numerous lavatory sites are
illustrated in Mem. A. S. C., Vol. 1.
Paalikaa: should be translated "abacus, " with
references to Tamil palaga Jouveau-Dubreuil,
Dravidian Architecture, pp. 10, 25, 42, and
fig. 17. See also kapota (paalikaa).
Paa^m'su: not in the Dictionary. Not translated where
it occurs as a permissible building materictl,
Buddhsghosa, Comm. on Cullavagga, VI, 1, 2,
cited S. B. E. XIII, 174; the other permitted
materials being brick, stone, and wood. Pa^msu,
taking all its uses into consideration, should
here be rendered "laterite," a common building
material especially in Ceylon. In Mahaava^msa
XXX, 7-9, where pa^msu is used in making
bricks, the word is rendered "sand" by Geiger;
(6) Benares edition, p. 413a, cited by Hoernle,
Uvaasagadasaao, II, Appendix, p. 45.
composed rock," "grit," would be preferable.
True sand (vaalikaa) would need only sifting,
not crushing and grinding as well. In rendering
such words some regard must be had both to
practical considerations and to the materials
actually available in a given locality. In the
tropics the country rock decomposes either into
true laterite (Sinhalese "cabook") which is
soft when cut, but hardens on exposure; or into
a friable sandy grit; both of these have their
use in building. Of course, there are many
places where pa^msu means simply earth, dust,
refuse, etc., cf. pa^msu-kuula, rags from
dust-heap. See also 'sarkara, s. v. in Dict.
and under aabhaasa.
Pa~ncaa^ngula: hattha-bhitti of Cullavagga, VI, 2, 7
explained by Buddhaghosa as pa~nca^ngula
bhitti: pa~nca^ngulika-pantikaa, Mahaava^msa,
XXXII, 4; pancangulitale, Aupapaatika Suutra,
2. Possibly colored impressions of the human
hand such as one not uncommonly sees on house
walls, more likely a five-foliate design such
as the palmettes which are so characteristic of
early Indian decoration. In all the above
passage we have to do with ornament applied to
walls or to cloth. Cf. the "three-finger
ornament" of Annandale, N., Plant and unimal
designs...of an Uriya village, Mem. A. S. B.,
VIII, 4, fig. 2.
Pa~njara, which has, like candra-'saala-vaataayana,
the double significance of 'attic" and "dormer
window" (see Jouveau-Dubreuil, passim), occurs
in the latter sense in Jataka,
III.379"looking down from an open window
(va.tasiihapa~njarena) ." Cf. Mahaava^msa,
Ratha-po~njara, the body of a carriage, Jaataka II,
172, IV, 60.
Parikhaa: Mahaava^msa, XXV, 48 timahaaparikha,
"having a great triple moat." See also under
Pa.t.ta: no reference to the meaning "frontlet, "
except that under viirapa.t.ta we find
"front-plate." In the story of Udayana, Jacobi,
Ausgewhlte Erzhlungen, p. 32, a sova.n.no
pa.t.to is used to cover the brand on a man's
forehead and is oontrasted with mau.da, a
turban or crown. In Ceylon the gold forehead
plate used in investiturea is called a
nalal-pa.ta, those thus honored being known as
pa.t.ta-bendi. In Prabandhacintaama.ni we get
pa.t.ta-hastin, state elephant; now elephants
do not wear turbans, but do wear jewelled bands
round the temples. In B.rhatsa^mhitaa the
section on pa.t.tas, which are not worn by
those of the highest rank, seems to imply the
meaning frontlet. Even Mahaava^msa, XXIII, 38,
dukuulapa.t.tena ve.thayitvaa may refer only to
the tying on of a fillet, though "turban" seems
plausible. No reference to pa.t.ta in the sense
of stone slab, etc. See Maalavikaagnimitra,
III, 79 (silaapa.t.taa^m) and Hoernle,
Uvaasagadusaao, II, p. 107; sthala (Sthaa1a) as
synonym, Maalavikaagnimitra, IV, 132. Loha-,
and sajjhu- pa.t.ta, sheets of copper and
silver, Mahaava^msa,. XXIX, 11-12 Paa.tika,
stone slab at the foot of the steps,
Mahaava^msa, XXXI, 61; other terms current in
Ceylon for "moonstones" are handa-ka.da pahana
(=candra-kha.n.da paa'saa.na), and iri-handa
candra kala). UUdhva-pa.t.ta, "stela," should
also be noted. Yogapa.t.ta is the braid used by
hermits to support the knee when seated on the
ground. Cullavagga, V, 11, pa~nca-pa.tika,
perhaps a " cupboard with five shelves." See
also under naaraaca.
Phalaka: commonly a panel for painting on. Add:
appasenaĝ, a board to lean against, when seated
on a couch. to protect the walls, Cullavagga,
VI, 20, 2, and VIII, 1, 4. Phalakattharasayana,
a wooden bed, Jaataka, 1, 304. a kind of cloth,
Mahaavagga, VIII, 28, 2 (see note in S. B. E.,
XVII, 246), and Cullavagga, V, 29, 3. See also
s. v. Arghya and Pralamba.
Praakaara: an important reference is misplaced under
praasaada, Dictionary, p. 419. The Besnagar
inscription (Mem, A. S. I., No. 4, pp. 128,
129) should be cited (puujaa-silaa-paakaara);
also Khaaravela's inscription at the
Haathigumphaa, Udayagiri. The Mahaava^msa, XXV,
30, has ucca-paakaara, rampart; ib. XXXIII, 5,
hatthi-paakaara, in the sense of the basement
retaining wall of the platform of a stuupa with
the foreparts of elephants projecting in relief
(see also Parker, Ancient Ceylon, p. 284).
Cullavagga, V, 14, 3 and elsewhere has
it.t.ha-, silaa-, and daaru- paakaaras. Other
references, Mysore A. S. Reports, 1913-14, pp.
8, 14 and 1919-20, pp. 2, 3, 5. In Kau.tiliiya
Artha'saastra, 53, "rampart" rather than
"parapets." Paakaara=wall round a park,
Buddhaghosa, Suma^ngala Vilaasini, I, p. 41.
Pralamba, (-phalaka): reference should be made to the
illustration of a pralamba-phalaka, fig. 94 in
my Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, and the full
explanation of its use there given according to
the Saariputra, as the Bimbamaana (see
Dictionary, P.768) is called in Ceylon.
Pramaa.na: the single meaning given, "measurement of
breadth" is insufficient. Promaa.na, in the
sense of "ideal proportion" appropriate to
various types is one of the .sa.da^nga of
painting, given in Ya'sodhara's Commentary on
the Kaamasuutra. See also Masson-Oursel, "Une
connexion dans l'esth'etique et la philosophie
de l'Inde, La notion de Pramaa.na," Revue des
arts asiatiques, II, 1925 (translated in
Ruupam, No. 27/28). Pramaa.na = land area
specified in grants, see Thakur in Sir Ashutosh
Mookerjee Memorial Volume, 1928, p. 80.
Praasaada: No reference to the Bharhut relief with
inscription Vijayanta paasaada, the only early
praasaada identified as such by a contemporary
inscription; it is a three-storeyed palace (see
HIIA, fig. 43); we possess so few positive
identifications of this kind that none should
be omitted. The Lohapaasaada described in
Mahaava^msa, Ch. XXVII, was an uposatha house
of nine storeys each with 100 kuu.taagaaras
"provided with vedikaas, and it contained 1000
chambers (gabbha). It was covered with plates
of copper, and thence came its name " (ib.
XXVII, 42); it was of wood, as it was later
burnt down (ib. XXXIII), and rebuilt with only
five storeys; the stone pillars on which the
superstructure was erected are still standing
at Anuraadhapura. The Sat-
mahal-paasaada at Po.lonnaaruva should also be
mentioned (HIIA. fig. 287). See also under
Pu.nya-'saalaa, -grrha: not in the Dictionary. Both
have been thought to refer to temples, but the
meaning dharma'saalaa is far more probable, as
pointed out by Hopkins, Epic Mythology, p. 71
(ib., 70-73 contains a very valuable discussion
of images and temples as referred to in the
Ra^nga, ra^nga-bhuumi, naa.tya 'saalaa,
prek.sa-grrha, etc.: not in the Dictionary. No
citation in the Dictionary of the
Naa.tya-'saastra, where the construction of
theatres is described at some length, with much
use of technical architectural terms. A
ra^nga-bhuumi, stage, set up, Mahaava^msa,
XXXI, 82. Ra^nga, Jaataka II, 152.
Rathakaara: " car-maker, " carpenter, not in the
Dictionary. A 'sudra, but connected with Vedic
sacrifices; a snaataka, may accept food from
one (Baudhaayana DhS., I, 3, 5 = S. B. E., XIV,
159). Much information on the social position
of craftsmen and related subjects is given in
my Indias Craftsman, apparently unknown to the
author: see also karmaara and aave.sa.nin,
above, and ruupakaara, below. Rathakaara in
inscription of Viruupaak.sa I, A. S. I., A. R.,
Southern Circle, Epigraphy, 1915, p. 106.
Ruupakaara: sculptor, not in the Dictionary. But the
'Silpin Raamadeva, son of the ruupakaara
Suhaka, inscription at Dhar, A. S. I., A. R.,
1903-04, p. 240, is cited under Raamadeva.
Reference should be given to 'sivamitra, a
'sela-ruupakaara of Mathuraa, mediaeval
inscription at 'Sraavastii, A. S. I., A. R.,
1908-09, p. 133. For Buddha-rakkhita, a
ruupakaaraka, see Cunningham, Bharhut,
inscription No. 42.
Sabhaa: the Bharhut relief with inscription Sudhammaa
Deva-sabhaa, a pillared circular shrine with
cornice and dome is not cited (HIIA, fig. 43).
See also Se^myutta, Nikaaya, XI, 3, 5 = Kindred
Sayings, I, p. 307, and Diigha Nikaaya, II,
In Jaataka VI, 127, the Sudhammaa-sabhaa of
Indra has octagonal columns (a.t.thamsa sukataa
thambhaa). The description of the heavenly
sabhaas in Mbh. II, 6-11, is altogether vague.
Sahasra-li^nga: not a " group " of a thousand phalli,
but one lingam with a thousand facets,
representing a thousand li^ngas. A good example
at 'Srii'silam, A. S. I., Southern Circle,
1917-18, Pl. V.
Samudraagaara: a summer house by a lake,
Maalavikaagnimitra, Act IV. Samuddavihaara, a
monastery on a river-bank, Mahaava^msa, XXXIV,
90. Samuddapa.n.na-saalaaya, ib. XIX, 26, a
hall built on the sea-shore. Cf. the pavilions
on the bund at Ajmer, and the island palaces at
Santhaagaara: "mote-hall," with a central pillar
(majjhima-tthamba^m), Diigha. Nikaaya, III, 209
= S. B. B., IV, 202.
'silpa: in the Atharva Veda, a " work of art"
(Bloomfield, Atharva Veda, p. 70).
'silpa-'saastra: Hsan Tsang's reference to five
vidyaas, of which the 'silpasthaana-Vidyaa is
one, is important as proving the existence of
technical works on 'silpa in his day (Beal,
Records, I, p. 78). The much earlier 'sulva
Suutras are effectively 'silpa-'saastras,
though not actually so designated.
'sivikaa-garbha, sivikaa-gabbha: an inner room shaped
like a palankeen, Cullavagga, VI, 3, 3. Glossed
by Buddhaghosa as caturassa, foursided. What
may be meant may be gathered from the elaborate
sivikaas represented in Amaraavati reliefs,
where their design is quite architectural
(Burgess, Buddhist stupas of Amaravati and
Jaggayyapeta, Pl. XI, 2 and p. 55, and Pl. XI,
Sopaana: see s. v. aalamba-baaha, harmya,
hasti-hasta, ka.da^nkara, pa.t.ta.
'Sre.ni: that painters were organised in guilds is
apparent from Jacobi, Ausgawhlte Erzhlungen.
in Maahaaraa.s.trii, P. 49, where the painter
Cittanngaya, "working in the king's
citta-sabhaa" belongs to a se.ni of
cittagaras. It is of interest that his daughter
Kanyama~njarii also paints. See also list of 18
guilds in Jaataka VI, 22: other references s.v.
se.ni in P. T. S. Pali Dictionary.
'Sriivatsa (sirivaccha) : also characteristic for
Mahaavira. The cruciform flower is the later
form only; in the Ku.saana period it is what
numismatists have called a naaga or shield
symbol (good illustration on a coin, Rapson,
Coins of the AAndhra Dynasty, pl. VIII, 207,
reverse, and on Mahaaviira's breast, Smith,
Jaina Stupa of Mathuraa, pl. XCI, right); the
development of the early form into the later
can be traced. Also cf. Hopkins, Epic
Mythology, p. 205.
Sthaana: the sense of pose, stance, is not given.
Five sthaanas (frontal, three-quarter, profile,
etc.) are defined in the 'silparatna, Ch. 64,
and thirteen in the Vi.s.nudharmottara (see
translation by S. Kramrisch, 26 edition, 1928).
Mahaasthaana, sacred area, inscription of
Mahiipaala. Sa^mvat 1083, A. S. I., A. R.,
1906-07, p. 99: Naagendrasya....
Dadhikarn.nasya sthaane silapa.t.to, Mathura
inscription Luders' List 85, Ep. Ind. I, 390,
no. 18, cited Mem. A. S. I., Vol. 5.
Stuupa: no description of the component parts is
given: they are sopaana, a.n.da, medhi or
garbha harmikaa, ya.s.ti, chattraavali,
var.sa-sthaala or a.mrrta-kala'sa. There should
be mention of the synonym daagaba
(d~hatugarbha), and of e.duuka and jaaluka by
which names Buddhist relic shrines are referred
to in the Mahaabhaarata (3, 190, 65 and 67).
The detailed description of a stuupa in the
Divyaavadaana, p. 244, summarised by Foucher'
L'Art gro-bouddhique,.. I, p. 96, and the
detailed account of the building of a stuups in
Mahaava^msa, Chs. XXVIII, seq. should be
referred to; also the full account in Parker,
Ancient Ceylon. The letter quotes a
Sanskritic-Pali text defining the shapes and
proportions of daagabas, from the
Waiddyaanta-pota (Or Vaajayantaya) a
'silpa-'saastra; well known in Ceylon, but not
mentioned in the Dictionary. The Avadaana
'Sataka mentions three kinds of
stuupas-gandhastuupa, ke'sanakhastuupa, and
stuupa--the latter being
the regular dhaatu-stuupa for funerary relics.
The Dhammapada Atthakathaa, XXI, 1-290, H. O.
S., Vol. 30, p. 175, has a thuupa built over
the body of a Brahman's son who had become a
Buddhist monk. Were stuupas ever erected by
others than Buddhists or Jainas? In
Kaa'syapa's Conversion at Saa~ncii (east gate,
left pillar, inner face, third panel) a railed
stuupa forms part of the Ja.tila aaraama: so
also at Amaraavatii, Fergusson, Tree and
Serpent Worship, P1. LXXXVI.
Stuupikaa: cetiyasiise kirii.ta^m viya kanakamaya^m
thuupika^m ca yojetvaa (Attanaguluva^msa,
Alwis, IX, 7). Dome of a palace, Mahaava^msa,
XXXI, I3, with above reference (Geiger).
Cf. silaathuupaka, Mahaava^msa, XXXIII, 24,
"a little stone stuupa," probably actually the
stuupa of II. I. I. A., fig. 292. But the usual
meaning of stuupikaa (as given in Dict.), is
"dome." I do not think this terminology implies
a derivation of the dome from the stuupa, but
only a resemblance of form. Granting the
recognized resemblance, however, the point is
of interest in connection with the origin of
the bulbous dome, for many early stuupas are
markedly bulbous. Some Pallava temples have
bulbous domes, and even the dome of H. I. I. A.
fig., ca. 200 A. D. almost exactly follows the
shape of the slightly swelling a.n.da of the
stuupa of ib. fig. 146.
'Sulka-'saalaa: a toll-house, Divyaavadaana, 275,
seq: 'Sulka-sthaana, Artha'saastra, II, 3.
Taala-maana: here reference should be made to many
published accounts, e. g. Rao, Taalamaana, my
Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, Ganguly, Orissa and
her Remains. On pp. 230, 233, what part of the
body is the " hiccough? "
Trr.nacchadana, Pali ti.na-cchadana: "thatch, "
Cullavagga, passim. In Atharva Veda, IX, 10,
11, the thatch is called a thousand-eyed net
stretched out like an opa'sa on the parting
(vi.suvant, here = ridgepole). See also Upamit.
Tulaa: the meaning "well-sweep " should be added
(Cullavagga, V, 16, 2); two other means of
raising water are mentioned, loc. cit., viz.
karaka.ta^nka literally " pot-edge " or
'"pot-ridge, " probably the " Persian "
water-wheel, and cakkava.t.taka, wheel and
axle. All three are still in common use.
But is karaka-.ta^nka really distinct from
kara-ka.taka, a hand wheel for drawing water?
Upamit, etc.: RV. I, 59, 4 and IV, 5, 1; AV, IX, 3,
1. See Bloomfield, Atharva Veda, II, 185, 195;
Whitney, Atharva Veda, 525; Zimmer,
Altindisches Leben, Ch. V; etc.
The whole terminology of the 'saalaa is
difficult, but the rendering of upamit as
(sloping) buttress (by Bloomfield and by
Zimmer) is extremely implausible and almost
certainly an error. I suggest upamit plinth or
pillar base; such bases were probably, as at
the present day, of stone, as a, protection
against white ants.(7) Then pratimit
(7) Cf. Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, p. 129, fig. 72, and
pl. VII, fig. 7, "Wooden pillars often rest on a
stone base as a protection against white ants."
(= sthuu.na) are the main upright wooden
pillars (corner pillars) set up on the upamit;
parimit, the horizontal beams of the framework,
connecting with the pratimit by means of
mortices or dovetails (sa^mda^m'sa);(8) pak.sa,
perhaps the wall plates; va^m'sa, the bamboo
rafters. The roof (chanda) is thatched with
straw or reeds (t.r.na): the cut ends of the
reeds may have given rise to the designation
"thousand eyed" of AV. IX, 3, 8. Palada
(bundles of grass or reeds, according to
Zimmer) and pari.sva~njalaya I cannot explain.
The 'sikyaani, ropes "tied within for
enjoyment, " may have served as partitions, to
be hung with cloths so as to divide the
interior into separate rooms; the Sinhalese
piliv.ela, is used in this way, and I remember
to have seen an ornamental example carried by a
party of travellers for use in a public
resthouse to secure privacy.
Vajraasana: "diamond throne, " though
well-established, not a good rendering;
"adamantine throne" would be better. See E.
Senart, "Vajrapaani dans les sculptures du
Gandhara, " Congr.Int. Orientalistes, Alger,
1905, Vol. I, p. 129. Bodhi-palla^mka in the
Nidaanakathaa, Jaataka, I, 75, is an
interesting synonym. The Buddha's aasana at the
Gal Vihaare, Po.lonnaaruva, Ceylon, is
decorated with actual vajras, hut this probably
represents a late interpretation of the term; I
know no other instance. See also Bodhi-ma.n.da
Vaana-la.thii, rafters or reepers? As a protection
against the rain, the vaanala.thii (of a house,
g.rha) are to be covered over with straw
(ka.ta, here thatch rather than straw mats),
Artha'saastra, III, 8. Cf. Ya.t.thiivana.
Vapra: in Kau.tiliiya A.rtha'saastra, 51, 52,
vaprasyopari praakaara^m; "glacis" rather than
"rampart," which latter rises above the vapra.
Vardhaki: I cannot think of any case where the
vardhaki, Pali va.d.dhaki, is specifically a
painter. The usual meaning is architect,
artisan. Cf. nagara-va.d.dhaki, the architect
of a city, Milindapa~nha, II, 1, 9. In
Mahaava^msa, XXX, 5, the 500
i.t.thakaa-va.d.dhakii are certainly not all
"master-builders" as rendered by Geiger, but
rather brickmakers or bricklayers; even the
va.d.dhaki who is their spokesman, ib., 12 is
hardly more than primus inter pares.
Va.d.dhaii, architect, one of the 14 'jewels'
of a Cakravartin, Uttaraadhyayanasuutra
commentary, cited Charpentier, p. 321. Numerous
designations of craftsmen will be found in the
'satapatha Braahma.na list of symbolic victims
of the Puru.samedha (S. B. E., XLIV, 413-417).
(8) Mediaeval Sinhalese Art, loc. cit. (p. 129),
"where the whole building rests on low stone
pillars, the wood pillars are mortised into huge
beams forming the framework of the floor."
Vedic parimit and Sanskrit kar.na-kiila seem to
designate such foundation beams; Vedic pak.sa and
Sanskrit kar.nikaa the wall plates forming the
framework of the roof. Where we have to do with
a colonnade rather than a wall, kar.nikaa is of
Vardhamaana: add "powder-box, " one of the
a.s.tama^ngala of the Jains. Early
illustrations, Smith, Jain. Stupa of Mathura,
pl. VII; later, Httemann, " Miniaturen zum
Jinacarita," Baessler Archiv., 1913, fig. 1.
Vardhamaana-g.rha, Uttaraadhyayanasuutra, IX,
Vastra-nip(y)a: is not "a jar-shaped ornament of a
column," but the knotted band or ribbon which
so often encircles the puur.na-kumbha which
forms the base or capital of a column, and the
Maanasaara text cited (kumbha-madhye, etc.) is
perfectly explicit on this point, "and in the
middle of the pot (i. e. round the belly) let
there be added a colored band of cloth as
a protection." This use of a string or band as
protecting charm or "fence" is of course well
known in many other connections.
Vaastu, add the meaning "Teal estate" (Meyer,
"Liegenschaft") : "Vaastu includes houses,
fields, groves, bridges (or ghaa.ts,
setu-bandha) , ponds, and reservoirs, "
Artha'saastra, III, 8.
Vaataayana: the Dictionary citations show that in the
'silpa-'saastras types of vaataayana are
differentiated by preceding qualifying
adjectives denoting the pattern of the grille
or openwork screen. In the light of this fact,
and of the varieties of windows represented in
reliefs and the types still in common use, the
three designations in Cullavagga, VI, 2, 2 are
perfectly intelligible: vedikaa vaatapaana is a
window with a rail-pattern grille;
jaala-vaatapaana is one with a trellis grille,
lattice; salaaka vaatapaana, one provided with
upright turned pillars or bars (not " slips of
wood") . Buddhaghosa glosses salaaka as
thambaka. For turning, s. v. likh.
Vedii, vedikaa, etc.: veiyaa of Jacobi, Ausgewhlte
Erzahlungen, p. 49, must be marriage pavilion
rather than balcony, as marriages always take
place in special temporary pavilions erected ad
hoc. In the common sense of railing, the
Mahaasudassana Sutta, I, 60, gives the
component parts, viz. stambha, (uprights) ,
suuci (cross-bar), u.s.nii.sa (coping), and
these words often occur in Prakrit forms in the
early inscriptions: also plinth, aalambana. In
Mahaava^msa, XXXV,2, muddhavedi is the railing
of the harmikaa, paadavedii the railing on the
basement level of a stuupa; ib. XXXVI, 52 and
103 has paasaa.na- and silaa-vedii, "stone
railing" (round the Bodhi-tree) rather than
"stone terrace" as interpreted by Geiger, p.
Mahaava.msa, XXXII, 4, vedikaa represented
in a painting. AAlamba baaha, the vedikaa of a,
sopaana, Cullavagga, V, 11, 6 etc.
See also ki^nkini-jaalaya. Cross references to
p(r) aakuura, and bhitti, should be given; cf.
bhitti-vedikaa of Maalavikaagnimitra, V, 1,
where it is built round an a'soka tree.
The very curious use of vedikaa to mean a
mode of sitting (aasana) is noted by
Charpentier, Uttaraadhyayanasuutram, p. 371.
Vidyut-lataa: Pali, vijjul-lataa, Mahaava^msa, XXX,
96, the Commentary having megha-lata naama
vijju-kumaariyo, "the cloud-vines called
lightning maidens." Real lightnings are
evidently intended, not mere zigzag lines as
rendered by Geiger. Representations of clouds
and lightning are very characteristic of Indian
painting; certain rooms in the old palace at
Bikanir, entirely decorated with a frieze of
clouds, lightning, and falling rain may be
cited (see my Rajput Painting, P1. VII). The
form vijju-kumaariyo is interesting, as the
lightning is similarly always feminine in
relation to clouds in rhetoric, and cf. Yajur
Veda, IV, 1, 11, Jaataka, V, .407 and
M.rcchaka.tika, V, 46.
Vimaana: reference should be made to the long and
excellent discussion of this word in the P. T.
S. Pali Dictionary.
Vii.naa: as this word and also karu.na-vii.naa are
separately rendered "flute," there can hardly
be a misprint; the proper word is, of course,
lute. Two forms are found in the early reliefs,
one like a harp, the other like a Japanese
biwa. So far as I know the southern vii.naa
with two large gourds as sounding boxes can be
seen first in the paintings at Eluura. The
parts of a vii.naa are named in Milindapa~ntha,
II, 3, 5; see also P. T. S. Pali Dictionary s.
Historical Architects, add:
AAnanda, son of Vaasi.s.thii, as above, s. v.
Balaka, pupil of Ka.nha, maker of a 'saalikaa at
Konda~ne, and one of the earliest craftsmen
known to us by name (Burgess, Report on the
Buddhist Cave Temples, 1883, p. 9).
Bammoja, western Caa.lukya inscription. Bammoja was
"a clever architect of the Kali age; the master
of the 64 arts and sciences; clever builder of
the 64 varieties of mansions, and the inventor
(?) of the four types of buildings called
Naagara, Kaali^nga, Draavi.da, and Vesara" (A.
S. I., A. R., 1914-15, Pt. I, p. 29), The
description of Kaali^nga as a style is cited in
the Dictionary from the Maanasaara.
Diipaa, builder of the Caumukh temple at Raa.npur;
belonged to the Sompura class of Brahman
architects, whose ancestor is said to have
built the temple of Somnaath-Mahaadeva at
Prabhaas-Pa.t.tan. The Sompuras, not mentioned
in the Dictionary, are said to have built many
temples in Gujarat, to have been at AAbu, and
to possess MSS. on architecture. One,
Nannaa-khumma, was in charge of repairs at
Raa.npur; another, Keval-Raam constructed
temples at Ahor (D. R. Bhandarkar, "Chaumukh
Temple at Raa.npur, " A. S. I., A. R.,
Jaita, etc.: an inscription on the window of the
second storey of Raa.na Kumbha's kiirtistambha
at Chitor (A. D. 1440-49) mentions the
architect of the building, and his two sons
Naps and Pu~nja. On the fifth storey are
effigies of the two last, and a third son,
another inscription at Chitor mentions the
fourth son, Balraaja. See A. S. I., A. R.,
1920-21, p. 34.
Sidatha (Siddhaartha), son of Naagacana, as above, s.
'Sivamitra, as above, s. v. ruupakaara.
Mallikaarjuna Chinnappa, builder of the Viirabhadra
temple at Chikkaba.l.laapur, Mysore, died 1860;
there is a tomb (gaddige) in a building to
right of the temple.
Treatises on architecture:
Bimbamaana: known in Ceylon as Saariputra. Add
reference to translated passages in my
Mediaeval Sinhalese Art.