THERE SEEMS to be an impression, current at least among general readers of books about Zen, if not among scholars of Chinese and Japanese, that a great many Zen texts have been translated into English and other European languages, certainly a sufficient number to warrant Western writers speaking with authority on Zen even when they are unable to handle primary source material. Actually, however, considering the countless volumes of Chinese and Japanese Zen writings existing today in their respective languages, the field of Zen literature still lies almost untouched by the translator's hand. A great deal of this field is not worth tilling, to be sure. But such literary works as are landmarks in the historical development of this important school of Buddhism, a development that extended over a period of six hundred years in China and, with much less vigor and originality, for another six hundred years in Japan, should have something of interest to offer to historians of philosophy and religion, if to no others. Though the problems involved in translating Zen texts are many and complex, they ate problems that offer a challenge to the pioneer spirit looking for new frontiers.
The following bibliography lists the published English, French, and German translations of Chinese and Japanese Zen texts known to the compiler. No attempt has been made, however, to include in it either the short passages from Zen texts with which the English works of D. T. Suzuki[a] teem or those in other books on Zen.
Three major works are to be found among the nineteen titles listed. The only complete translation of any one of these that has so fat appeared is the English translation of the Yuan[b] (1279-1368) version of The Sixth Patriarch's Suutra (II B). Of the other two major texts (X and XII), the former is represented only by two English translations of the same short excerpt, the latter by English translations of two excerpts and a German translation of the first third of the text. Of the eight minor works listed, there are complete translations of four: one; French (IV), three English (VII, VIII, and XIV), and one German (XIV). There are complete English translations of three of the six short works (V, VI, and XV) and complete German trans-
lations of three (XIII, XV, and XVII). Complete English and German translations of the two long poems (I and III) are available. The seemingly considerable number of translations, forty-five in this list, is therefore in large part due to duplication in translation of texts. It is hoped that this survey of the work already accomplished in this field will direct attention to how much Zen material of primary importance remains to be made available in European languages.
The bibliography is arranged chronologically according to the dares of the actual or purported authors of the original works, or those of the masters whose words, recorded by their disciples, comprise the text.
I. HSIN-HSIN-MING[c] (Japanese, Shinjinmei), by Seng-ts'an[d] (Japanese, Sosan) (d. A.D. 606), third patriarch of Zen in China. Taisho No. 2010 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 376b-377a). A longish poem on the Absolute Mind.
1. "On Believing in Mind," translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Manual of Zen Buddhism (London: Rider and Company, 1957), pp. 76-82.
2. "On Trust in the Heart," translated by Arthur Waley, in Buddhist Texts through the Ages, edited by Edward Conze (New York: Philosophical Library, 1954), pp. 295-298.
3. "'(Schindjin-mej)' (Stempel des Glaubens von dem dritten Patriarch Szozan)" by Schuy [Shuei] Ohasama[e] [and August] Faust, in Zen, der Lebendige Buddhismus in Japan (Gotha/Stuttgart: Friedrich Andreas Perthes, 1925), pp. 64-71, with extensive footnotes.
4. "The Hsinhsinming," translated by R. H. Blyth, in R. H. Blyth, Zen and Zen Classics, Vol. I (Tokyo: The Hokuseido Press, 1960),pp. 46-103, with commentary characteristic of the author-translator.
II. LIU-TSU-T'AN-CHING[f] (Japanese, Rokuso dankyo). The "Platform Suutra of the Sixth Patriarch" is the most important early Zen work. It consists of the discourses of Hui-neng[g] (Japanese, Eno) (638-713), together with some biographical material, recorded by the patriarch's disciple Fa-hai[h](Japanese,Hokai).The two available versions of it are:
A. Nan-tsung tun-chiao tsui-shang ta-ch'eng Mo-ho pan-jo po-lo-mi ching Liu-tsu Hui-neng ta-shih Shao-chou Ta-fan-ssu shih-fa
t'an-ching[i] (Japanese, Nanshu tongyo saijo Daijo Maka hannya haramitsu kyo ni tsuite Rokuso Eno Daishi ga Shoshu Daibon-ji ni oite seho seru dankyo), Taisho No. 2007 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 337a-345b) A manuscript found in the caves at Tun-huang[j] (Japanese, Tonko) and known as the Tun-huang version. It is in one chuan;[k] the text runs consecutively, with no divisions. Excerpts only have been translated.
1. "Platform Suutra of the Sixth Patriarch," translated by Wing-tsit Chan,[l] in Sources of Chinese Tradition, edited by Wm. Theodore de Bary (New York: Columbia University Press, 1960), pp. 390-396. A series of short passages arranged in their original sequence and comprising in all about one-sixth of the total text.
2. "From Hui-neng's Tan-ching," translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Manual of Zen Buddhism, pp. 82-89. The translator has used as his basic text the Tun-huang version as edited by himself and Kuda Rentaro:[m] Tonko shutsudo Rokuso dankyo[n] (Tokyo: Morie Shoten, 1934), 64 pages Two long sections totaling almost one-sixth of the text have been beautifully translated: on the meaning of mahaapraj~naapaaramitaa, Taisho No.2007 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 339c.22-340c.3),and the Master's farewell talk to his disciples (loc. cit., 343c.14-344a.15).
B. Liu-tsu ta-shih fa-pao t'an-ching[o] (Japanese, Rokuso Daishi hobo dankyo ) , Taisho No. 2008 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 345b.l8-365a.4) . This text, compiled in 1291 by Tsung-pao[p] (Japanese, Shuho), opens with the preface to the Sung[q] (960-1279) edition of the Suutra, a version long lost, by Ch'i-sung[r] (Japanese, Kaisu) (1007-1072), and concludes with an appendix, a biography of Hui-neng collected by Fa-hai and others, and a postface by the compiler. The body of the text, in one chuan, is divided into ten sections, each with a title.
In his postface, Tsung-pao states that, by the an period, texts of the Suutra had long been out of circulation or lost. One day, he happened by chance upon a copy of the book. Further search resulted in his finding two more copies. Since the three copies varied considerably from one another, he undertook to collate them. Then, deciding that additional material was necessary to make the text understandable to readers of his day,
nearly 600 years after the death of the Sixth Patriarch, he expanded the body of the collated text and added to it the preface and appendix. Unfortunately, he does not say what texts he used for collation or indicate what portions of the finished work were his own added material. It is Tsung-pao's text that has been continuously in use in the Zen schools of China and Japan since the Yuan Dynasty, for, until the discovery of the Tun-huang version, no other was in general circulation.
Though the Tun-huang version and the body of the Yuan text more or less parallel one another, the Tun-huang text is only about two-thirds the length of the Yuan. A careful comparison of the two should give a clearer indication of just what the Sixth Patriarch's Zen actually was in middle T'ang[s] (618-907) and to what degree it had been developed by the time Tsung-pao took it in hand. In the books mentioned below, only the body of the Yuan version is translated. None includes the preface, appendix, or postface.
1. Suutra Spoken by the Sixth Patriarch Wei Lang on the High Seat of the Gem of the Law, translated by Wong Mou-lam[t] (Shanghai: Yu Ching Press, 1930). I do not have at hand a copy of the original publication, but the abbreviated "Preface" and "Translator's Preface" included in No. 3 (below) state that the work was undertaken by Wong at the request of his teacher and patron, Dih Ping Tze, who desired to have this Suutra translated into a European language in order that the message of Zen might be transmitted to the West. Wong keenly regrets his incompetence, since neither his linguistic ability nor his knowledge of Buddhism is adequate for the task requested of him by his teacher. The original translation clearly shows Wong's devout heart but leaves much to be desired as a translation of the material.
2. "Suutra Spoken by the Sixth Patriarch," edited by Dwight Goddard, in A Buddhist Bible, revised and enlarged, edited by Dwight Goddard (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1938), pp. 497-561. Goddard's version is based upon the translation made by Wong (No. 1, above). However, the original sequence of the ten sections has been changed, the text shortened, the material somewhat reorganized, and whole sentences paraphrased. All this has been done in accordance
with the editor's avowed intention, stated in his preface to the Bible, to produce a book that should be a "source of spiritual inspiration," rather than a "source book for critical and historical study." This version of the translation suffers from the editor's limited knowledge of the Chinese language and his dependence upon personal intuition rather than scholarship. It cannot be used as a text for serious study of Zen.
3. The Suutra of Wei Lang (or Hui-neng), translated from the Chinese by Wong Mou-lam. New edition edited by Christmas Humphreys (London: Luzac and Company, for the Buddhist Society, London, 1944), 128 pages. The editor of this version of the Suutra has "scrupulously avoided any re-writing or even paraphrasing (of Wong's text) . . . but confined himself to a minimum of alterations." Thus, we have in this book practically a reprint of the original Chinese publication. The reader becomes somewhat wary of even the editor's "alterations," however, after reading in the preface his reason for changing Wong's "Gem of the Law" in the title to "Chariot of the Law." A glance at the title of the Taisho text would have shown the editor that Wong's rendering of the Chinese "Pao"[u] as the Sanskrit "ratha" was either a typographical error or a mistaken spelling of "ratna."
We must still wait for a scholarly and penetrating English translation of this work, in which the words of the real founder of the Zen school in China are recorded. In the meanwhile, Western readers should take care not to place too much dependence upon these existing translations of the Yuan version. In this, as in other cases, they would do well to inquire into the qualifications of translators and editors.
4. "Suutra des Sechsten Patriarchen," German translation by E. Rousselle as follows:
Chap. I: Sinica, Vol. V(1930), pp. 174-191.
Chap. II: Chinesisch-Deutscher Almanach (1931), pp. 76-86.
Chap. III: Sinica, Vol. VI(1931), pp. 26-34.
Chap. IV and V: Sinica, Vol. XI (1936),pp. 3-4, 131-137.
Chap. VI: Sinica, Vol. XI(1936), pp. 5-6, 202-211.
The present compiler has been unable to obtain a copy of this translation for examination.
III. CHENG-TAO-KO[v] (Japanese, Shodoka), by Yung-chia Hsuan-chueh[w] (Japanese, Yoka Genkaku) (665-713), Taisho No. 2014 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 395c-396c). A long poem traditionally attributed to Yung-chia, who is said to have been a monk of the T'ien-t'ai[x] (Japanese,.Tendai) school before becoming one of the important disciples of Hui-neng, the Sixth Patriarch. This poem has always been popular in the Zen school.
1. "Yoka Daishi's 'Song of Enlightenment,' " translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Manual of Zen Buddhism, pp. 89-103.
2. "Sho-Do-Ka by Yoka-Daishi," translated by Nyogen Senzaki[y] and Ruth Strout McCandless, in Buddhism and Zen, compiled, edited, and translated by Nyogen Senzaki and Ruth Strout McCandless (New York: The Philosophical Library, 1953), pp.31-72. A translation interspersed with extensive informal commentary.
3. "Yung-Chia's Song of Experiencing the Tao," translated by Waiter Liebenthal, in Monumenta Serica, VI (1941), 1-39. Professor Liebenthal has given here, in addition to the translation of the text, a scholarly introduction, in which he discusses the authorship, the author, and the text; Appendix I and II, in which he lists textual variants; and Appendix III, in which he translates pertinent biographical material from the Sung kao-seng chuan[z] (Japanese, So koso den), Taisho No. 2061 (Vol. L, pp. 709-900) and the Ching-te ch'uan-teng lu[aa] (Japanese, Keitoku dento roku), Taisho No. 2076 (Vol. LI, pp. 196-467). Perhaps the Zennist will not always agree with the author's translation of terms or with his highly personal interpretation of the text.
4. "'Schodo-ka' (Gesang vom Erleben der Wahrheit, vom dem Grossen Lehrer Joka)," free German translation by Ohasama and Faust, in Zen, Der Lebendige Buddhismus in Japan, pp. 71-91, with extensive footnotes.
IV. SHEN-HUI HO-SHANG I-CHI[ab] (Japanese, Jinne osho ishu), MS. fragments of the T'ang version from the Tun-huang caves, published by Hu Shih[ac] (Shanghai: Oriental Book Company, 1930), 220 pages. Recorded discourses and conversations of Ho-tse Shen-hui[ad] (Japanese, Kataku Jinni) (668-760), a disciple of the Sixth
Patriarch, who made himself famous through his successful defense of the school of "sudden awakening (tun-wu[ae])," considered to have been founded by his master, against that of "gradual awakening (chien-wu[af])," or the school of Northern Zen, founded by Shen-hsiu[ag] (Japanese, Shinshu), a fellow disciple of Hui-neng under the Fifth Patriarch, Hung-jen[ah] (Japanese, Gunin).
1. Entretiens du Maitre de Dhyana Chen Houei Du Ho-tso, translated into French and annotated by Jacques Gernet, Publications de l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, Vol. XXXI (Hanoi: l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, 1949), 127 pages. "The Conversations of the Zen Master Shen-hui of Ho-tse" is a scholarly and carefully annotated translation of a text very important for the early history of Chinese Zen.
Gernet has also written an excellent biographical study of Shen-hui, based largely upon material from the Sung Kao-seng chuan, in Journal Asiatique, CCXXXIX (1951), 29-68.
V. HO-TSE TA-SHIH HSIEN-TSUNG CHI[ai] (Japanese, Kataku daishi kenshu ki), in the Ching-te ch'uan-teng lu, chuan 30, Taisho, No. 2076 (Vol. LI, pp. 458c.25-459b.6). A short work by Ho-tse Shen-hui. The Tun-huang version of this text forms chuan 4 of the Shen-hui ho-shang i-chi (IV, above), where it bears the title Tun-wu wu-shen po-jo sung[aj] (Japanese, Tongo musho hannya ju). For the French translation of this version, see Gernet, op. cit., pp. 106-110.
1. "Elucidating the Doctrine," translated by Wing-tsit Chan, in Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 396-400. Though the translator has based his work on the Ching-te ch'uan-teng lu text, he has emended this at certain points in the light of the Tun-huang version.
VI. NAN-YANG HO-SHANG TUN-CHIAO CHIEH-T'O CH'AN-MEN CHIH-LIAO-HSING T'AN-YU[ak] (Japanese, Nanyo osho tongyo gedatsu zemmon jikiryosho dango), Tun-huang MS. (Pelliot) 2045. A discourse of Ho-tse Shen-hui (see above, IV) in which he recommends the "sudden school" (Tun-chiao[al]) of Zen over that of the "gradual school" (chien-chiao[am]), to which he is vigorously opposed.
1. "The Sermon of Shen-hui," translated by W. Liebenthal, in Asia Major, New Series, III (1953), part II, 132-155. Though the
work is in the translator's scholarly style, again, as in III, 3 (above), the Zennist will take exception to the English renderings of many terms and to much of the interpretation of the text.
VII. TUN-WU JU-TAO YAO-MEN LUN[an] (Japanese, Tongo nyudo yomon ron), by Ta-chu Hui-hai[ao] (Japanese, Daishu Ekai) (d. bet 800-831), in one chuan, Dainihon Zokuzokyo,[ap] 2.15.5 (pp. 420b-426b). A short work on sudden awakening by a disciple of Ma-tsu Tao-i[aq] (Japanese, Base Doitsu) (?-788), in the third generation after the Sixth Patriarch. The author was an able scholar of the Diamond Suutra and the Praj~naapaaramitaa doctrine.
1. The Path to Sudden Attainment, a treatise of the Ch'an (Zen) school of Chinese Buddhism by Hui Hai[ar] of the T'ang Dynasty, translated by John Blofeld (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd., for the Buddhist Society, London, 1948), 51 pages. A literal and concise translation that follows the text closely.
VIII. HUANG-PO CH'UAN-HSIN FA-YAO[as] (Japanese, Obaku den-shin hoyo) and the HUANG-PO TUAN-CHI CH'AN-SHIH WAN-LING LU[at] (Japanese, Obaku Dansai zenji enryo roku), Taisho No. 2012, A and B (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 379b.25-387b.14). The teachings of the Zen master Huang-po Hsi-yun[au] (Japanese, Obaku Kiun) (?-850) as recorded by his disciple, the official, P'ei Hsiu[av] (Japanese, Hai Kyu), with a preface by the author, dated 857. Though both texts are short, they are important because they contain ideas that were later more fully developed by Huang-po's famous disciple, Lin-chi[aw] (Japanese, Rinzai) (see X, below). P'ei Hsiu, who transcribed his master's teachings from notes he had taken of discourses and personal interviews, was a famous and eccentric official of great learning. The two works are usually presented together in Chinese texts.
1. "Huang-po's Sermon, from 'Treatise on the Essentials of the Transmission of Mind,' " translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Manual of Zen Buddhism, pp. 112-119. The translation of about one-sixth of text "A" (loc. cit., pp. 379c.17-380c.20) in Suzuki's usual style.
2. The Huang Po Doctrine of Universal Mind, translated by Chu Ch'an[ax] (London: The Buddhist Society, 1947), 52 pages. A translation of text "A" by John Blofeld, published under his pseudonym, Chu Ch'an. A straightforward, literal translation.
3. The Zen Teaching of Huang Po on the Transmission of Mind, translated by John Blofeld (London: Rider & Company, 1959), 136 pages. A complete translation of both the "A" and "B" texts. In this latest work, the translator tends to be more interpretive in his rendering of the Chinese than in his two earlier works, with the result that the power and directness of the original are somewhat obscured.
IX. KUEI-SHAN LING-YU CH'AN-SHIH YU-LU[ay] (Japanese, Isan Reiyu zenji goroku), Taisho No. 1989 (Vol. XLVII, pp. 577a-582a.6). The recorded conversations of Zen master Ling-yu[az] of Kuei-shan[ba] (771-853), who, with his disciple Yang-shan Hui-chi[bb] (Japanese, Kyozan Ejaku) (814-890), founded the Kuei-yang Tsung[bc] (Japanese, Igyo-shu), a school soon absorbed into the Lin-chi Tsung[bd] (Japanese, Rinzai-shu).
1. "Les Entretiens du Maitre Ling-yeou du Kouei-chan," French translation by Jacques Gernet, in Bulletin de l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, XLV (1951), No. 1, 65-70. The translation of eight episodes chosen from here and there in the text and comprising about one-sixth of the original Chinese, with notes and explanatory remarks in Gernet's scholarly style.
X. CHEN-CHOU LIN-CHI HUI-CHAO CH'AN-SHIH YU-LU[be] (Japanese, Chinshu Rinzai Esho Zenji Goroku) in one chuan, Tai-sho No. 1985 (Vol. XLVII, pp. 495a-506c). The discourses, conversations, and episodes in the life of Lin-chi I[bf] (Japanese, Rinzai Gigen) (?-866?), heir of Huang-po Hsi-n (see above, VIII), and founder of the Lin-chi school of Chinese Zen, recorded by his disciple Hui-jan[bg] (Japanese, Enen). One of the most famous texts in Chinese Zen.
1. "I-hsuan -- A Sermon," translated by Wing-tsit Chan, in Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 400-403. A famous sermon in which Lin-chi sets forth the main principles of his teaching. It comprises only a tiny part of the entire text (loc. cit., pp. 497a.29-c.25).
2. The same sermon, translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Essays in Zen Buddhism, Third Series (London: Rider & Company, for the Buddhist Society, London, 1953), pp. 47-53. Both of the above are, in the opinion of this compiler, flat and pedestrian translations of a vigorous and powerful text.
XI. FU-CHOU TS'AO-SHAN PEN-CHI CH'AN-SHIH YU-LU[bh] (Japanese, Bushu Sozan Honjaku zenji goroku), in two chuans, Taisho No. 1987B (Vol. XLVII, pp. 536b-541c.9). A collection of the recorded conversations, short writings, and sayings of Pen-chi[bi] of Ts'ao-shan[bj] (840-901), who, with his teacher, Tung-shan Liang-chieh[bk] (Japanese, Tozan Ryokai) (807-869), founded the Ts'ao-tung Tsung[bl] (Japanese, Soto-shu) school of Chinese Zen.
1. "Pen-chi--Questions and Answers," translated by Wing-tsit Chan in Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 403-408. Twenty-two wen-ta[bm] (Japanese, mondos) --exchange of question and answer between a master and a student--chosen from among the many in chuan 1.
XII. PI-YEN LU[bn] ( Japanese, Hekigan roku), by an-wu K'o-ch'in[bo] (Japanese, Engo Kokugon) (1063-1135), in ten chuans, Taisho No. 2003 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 129a-225c). A collection of one hundred kung-an[bp] (Japanese, koans), problems for Zen study, originally compiled by Hsueh-tou Ch'ung-hsien[bq] (Japanese, Setcho Juken) (980-1052) of the n-men Tsung[br] (Japanese, Ummonshu), a school of Chinese Zen, with a commentary in verse by the compiler appended to each koan. Later, the Zen Master an-wu of the Lin-chi school lectured on Hsueh-tou's collection, giving an introduction to each koan, commentary on the koan itself, and further commentary on Hsueh-tou's appended verse. The text is the record of Yuan-wu's lectures compiled by several of his disciples. The Pi-yen lu ("Record of the Green Rock [Room]," from the name of the hall in which an-wu gave his lectures) is the most important koan collection in Rinzai Zen, and is in current use in all Japanese Rinzai monasteries.
1. "The Case (Koan) LV--Tao-wu and Chien-an Visit a Family to Mourn the Dead," translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Essays in Zen Buddhism, Second Series (London: Luzac and Company, 1933), pp. 219-226. The free translation of the text is interspersed with the translator's commentary.
2. "The Case (Koan) LXXXVIII, Gensha on the Three Invalids," translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Manual of Zen Buddhism, pp. 120-127. A literal translation.
3. "Du Nonne Liu bei We-shan. Das 24. Kapitel des Bi-yan-lu (Pi-yen lu)," translated into German by W. Gundert, in Asiatica,
Festschrift Friedrich Weller (Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1954), pp. 184-197.
4. "Das Zweite Kapitel des Pi-yen lu," translated into German by W. Gundert, in Oriens Extremus, II (1955), 22-38. Both of the above are careful, scholarly translations, fully annotated.
5. Bi-yan-lu: Meister Yuan-wu's Niederschrift von der Smaradenen Felswand, verfasst auf dem Djia-schan bei Li in Hunan zwischen 1111 und 1115, im Druck erschienen in Szechuan um 1300, verdeutscht und erlautert von Wilhelm Gundert (Munchen: Carl Hanser Verlag, 1960), 581 pages. A scholarly German translation of the complete text of the first 33 "cases" (Koans) of this famous Chinese Zen classic. The work contains a lengthy introduction, explanatory commentary by the translator inserted in the text, copious footnotes, two chronological tables, bibliography, and index. Professor Gundert's work is the most outstanding translation of a Chinese Zen text yet to appear in a Western language. We look forward with anticipation to the publication of the remaining 67 "cases."
XIII. SHIH-NIU T'U-SUNG[bs] (Japanese, Jugyu zuju), by K'uo-an Shih-yuan[bt] (Japanese, Kakuan Shien) (12th century), Dainihon Zokuzokyo, 2.18.5 (pp. 459a-460b). Ten short statements in prose, each followed by a verse, written to accompany ten pictures by the author illustrating the stages on the path to the final goal of Zen discipline. The work contains a preface by the author and two additional verses by unknown writers for each picture. There are no illustrations in the Chinese text.
1. Der Ochs und sein Hirte, Eine altchinesische Zen-Geschichte erlautert von Meister Daizohkutsu R. Ohtsu mit japanischen Bildern aus dem 15. Jahrhundert ubersetzt von Koichi Tsujimura und Hartmut Buchner (Pfullingen: Gunther Neske, 1958), 135 pages. A definitive translation in German of K'uo-an's complete text. The long commentary is a translation of a series of lectures given in Japanese by Rekido, Otsu,[bu] present Chief Abbot of the Rinzai Zen headquarters temple, Shokoku-ji,[bv] Kyoto, and Zen Master of the Shokoku-ji Monastery. This is the first complete commentary in a European language by a modern Zen master on any Zen text. The ten illustration are beautiful reproductions
of the copies of K'uo-an's originals made by the Shokoku-ji priest Shubun[bw] (d. 1454) and still in the possession of that temple.
2. "The Ten Cow-herding Pictures," translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Essays in Zen Buddhism, First Series (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949), pp. 361-374. A long introduction by the translator precedes the translation of K'uo-an's prose and verse. His preface and the verses by others are not included. The pictures accompanying the text are by a present-day Japanese Zen priest.
3. "The Ten Oxherding Pictures," translated by D. T. Suzuki, in Manual of Zen Buddhism, pp. 150-171. A slightly different translation of K'uo-an's text, preceded by a short introduction. As before, K'uo-an's preface and the verses by others are omitted. The ten illustrations included are reproductions of K'uo-an's originals by the fifteenth-century Japanese Zen priest Shunbun. The translator has included a second set of pictures and verses by P'u-ming[bx] (Japanese, Fumyo), an unknown person. From what text these have been taken is not indicated, but P'u-ming's verses will be found interspersed among others in the above-noted volume of the Dainihon Zokuzokyo, pp. 461a-462a.
4. "10 Bulls," transcribed by Nyogen Senzaki and Paul Reps, in Zen Flesh, Zen Bones, A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings, compiled by Paul Reps (Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1957), pp. 163-186. Another translation of K'uo-an's prose and verse only, with a short introduction by the transcribers. The illustrations are by Tomikichiro Tokuriki,[by] a present-day Kyoto wood-block artist.
XIV. WU-MEN-KUAN[bz] (Japanese, Mumonkan), compiled by Wu-men Hui-k'ai[ca] (Japanese, Mumon Ekai) (1184-1260), Taisho No. 2005 (Vol. XLVIII, pp. 292a-299c). A collection of 48 koans with prose and verse commentary by the compiler. A forty-ninth Koan by the lay-disciple An-wan[cb] (Japanese, Amban) is usually included.
1. "The Gateless Gate," transcribed by Nyogen Senzaki and Paul Reps, in Zen Flesh, Zen Boner, pp. 109-161.
2. "The Mu Mon Kwan, The Gateless Barrier to Zen Experience," translated by Sohaku Ogata,[cc] in Zen for the West, by Sohaku Ogata (London: Rider & Company, for the Buddhist Society, London, 1959), pp. 78-133. Both of the above translations are pleasantly Englished, but
leave much to be desired as translations of the text itself. Neither these translations nor that which follows are sufficiently accurate to be used by the foreign student studying koans under a Zen master.
3. Das Wu-Men-Kuan, oder "Der Pass ohne Tor," ubersetzt und erklart von Heinrich Dumoulin, S. J. (Tokyo: Sophia University Press [Jochi Daigaku], 1953), 64 pages. A painstaking German translation with copious footnotes, interpretations of the meaning of each koan, and an interesting introduction, in which will be found the biography of Wu-men Hui-k'ai and also that of his Japanese disciple, Shinchi Kakushin[cd] (1207-1298), who first brought the book to Japan, The translator's interpretations of the import of the Koans are questionable.
XV. FUKIAI ZAZEN GI[CE] by Dogen Zenji[cf] (1200-1253),Taisho No. 2580 (Vol. LXXXII, pp. la-b). Rules for the practice of zazen (sitting meditation) by the famous Japanese Zen priest who founded the school of Japanese Soto Zen.[cg]
1. "Fukanzazengi (Rules for Zazen)," translated by Reiho Masunaga,[ch] in The Soto Approach to Zen (Tokyo: Layman Buddhist Society Press [Zaike Bukkyo kyokai], 1958),pp. 100-105.
2. "Allgemeine Lehren zur Forderung des Zazen von Zen-Meister Dogen." A German translation by Heinrich Dumoulin, S. J., in Monumenta Nipponica, XIV (1958-1959), Nos. 3-4, 183-190. A careful translation with introduction and copious footnotes.
XVI. SHOBO GENZO ZUIMON KI,[ci] the conversations of Dogen Zenji (cf. XV, above), recorded by his disciple Ejo[cj] (1198-1280), Kokubun Toho Bukkyo Sosho,[ck] Ser. 1, Vol. 4, pp. 166-274. Intimate talks to his disciples by the founder of the Japanese Soto School, in which he speaks in a simple and direct way of his views, of his early experiences, and of his masters.
1. Syobogenzo-zuimonki, 'Wortgetreue Niederschrift der lehrreichen Worte Dogen-Zenzis uber den wahren Buddhismus. A German translation by Hidemasa Iwamoto[cl] (Tokyo: Sankibo Busshorin, 1943), 156 pages. A straightforward, literal translation of seventy selected passages, comprising about one-half of the original text. The work includes a short biography of Dogen, a sketch of Japanese Buddhism, and some explanatory notes.
2. "Dogen-Conversations," translated by Ryusaku Tsunoda,[cm] in Sources of Japanese Tradition, compiled by Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm. Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), pp. 246-249 and 253-255. A fine translation of a few passages.
XVII. ZAZEN YOJIN KI,[cn] by Keizan Jokin[co] (1268-1325), Taisho No. 2586 (Vol. LXXXII, pp. 412a-414b).A work on the practice of zazen by the Fourth Patriarch of Japanese Soto Zen.
1. "Zazen Yojinki, Merkbuch fur die Ubung des Zazen," German translation by Heinrich Dumoulin, S. J., in Monumenta Nipponica, XIII (1957-1958), Nos. 3-4, 147-164. Contains a long introduction with biographical material on the author and copious footnotes.
XVIII. PO-SHAN HO-SHANG TS'AN-CH'AN CHING-YU[cp] (Japanese, Hakuzan osho sanzen keigo), in two chuans, Dainihon Zokuzokyo, 2.17.5 (pp. 473b-486a). The admonitions to Zen students before and after they have attained satori, short commentaries on the words of old masters, and verses, by monk Wu-i Yuan-lai[cq] (Japanese, Mui Genrai) (1575-1630) of the Ts'ao-tung Tsung, compiled by the head monk (shou-tso) Ch'eng-cheng[cr] (Japanese, Josho shuso).
1. "Discourses of Master Po-Shan," translated by Chang Chen-chi, in The Practice of Zen (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959), pp. 66-79. Thirty-one passages taken from the above late Ming[cs] (1368-1644) work--about one-fourth of the complete text--and given in their original sequence. Though the translation will suffice, it scarcely does justice to a work which, in its entirety,has much of value to offer serious Zen students even today.
XIX. YASEN KANNA,[ct] by Hakuin Ekaku[cu] (1686-1769), in Hakuin osho Zenshu,[cv] ("Collected Works of Master Hakuin"), Vol. III, pp. 341-400, in two kans, with a preface by an unidentifiable disciple of Hakuin. A short work by the great revivifier of Japanese Rinzai Zen in the Tokugawa[cw] era (1603-1868), in which he discusses some of the physical and mental problems that come to the ardent novice in Zen practice, and offers fatherly advice for their solution based upon his own personal experiences in his youth.
1. "Yasen Kanna,'A Chat on a Boat in the Evening,' " Preface and Part I, translated by R. D. M. Shaw and W. Schiffer, S. J., in
Monumenta Nipponica, XIII (1957), Nos. 1-2, 101-127. The introduction to the translation contains a brief description of the status of Buddhism in Hakuin's time, as well as a biographical sketch. A careful translation of a curious text.
XX. TETTEKI TOSUI[cx] ("Blowing the Iron Flute Upside Down"), by Genro Oryu[cy] (1720-1813), with additional remarks by Fugai Honko[cz] (1779-1847) , (Kyoto: Ryushi-ken,1783 ) . A collection of 100 old Chinese koans, each with comments and verse, by the Japanese Soto master Genro, and with additional comments by his disciple Fugai.
1. The Iron Flute: 100 Zen Koans with commentary by Genro, Fugai, and Nyogen, translated and edited by Nyogen Senzaki and Ruth Strout McCandless. (Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1961), 175 pages, illustrated.
Two books have recently appeared containing English translations of Chinese and Japanese Zen writings of a somewhat different nature than most of the texts mentioned above. In large part, they consist of sermons and commentaries, and ate interesting in that they provide an opportunity to see how the masters of modern or relatively modern times expounded Zen, or Ch'an, to their lay followers.
Ch'an and Zen Teaching, Series One, edited, translated, and explained by Lu K'uan Yu (Charles Luk) (London: Rider & Company, 1960), 255 pages. A collection of writings by Ch'an masters from the Ming Dynasty to the present time. The book consists of discourses by Master Hsu-yun[da] (1840-1959); six excerpts from the Yu-hsuan yu-lu,[db] compiled by Yung Cheng,[dc] third emperor (reigned 1723-1736) of the Ch'ing[dd] Dynasty (1644-1912); and commentaries on the Diamond Suutra (Vajracchedikaa praj~naapaaramitaa Suutra) and the Heart Suutra (Praj~naapaaramitaa-h.rdaya Suutra) by Master Han-shan[de] (1546-1624), together with the full text of each Suutra. The translator has added introductions, footnotes, an appendix, and a glossary.
A First Zen Reader, compiled and translated by Trevor Leggett (Rutland, Vermont, and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1960), 236 pages. The major contents of this work consist of a collection of talks by Rosen Takashina[df] (1876- ), primate of the Soto, Zen school of Japan, entitled "A Tongue-tip Taste of Zen," and a commentary on Hakuin's "Song of Meditation," by Sessan Amakuki[dg] (1878- ), a Japanese Rinzai Zen priest.