Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

phandanaṃ capalaṃ cittaṃ dūrakkhaṃ dunnivārayaṃ

ujuṃ karoti medhāvī usukāro va tejanaṃ

(DhP 33)

Sentence Translation:

The wavering, unsteady mind, hard to guard, difficult to restrain,
the wise one straightens, like an arrow-maker an arrow.

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

phandanaṃ capalaṃ    cittaṃ dūrakkhaṃ dunnivārayaṃ
|                       |              |             |                  |

Adj.n.           Adj.n.      N.n.       Adj.n.          Adj.n.

Acc.Sg.        Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.    Acc.Sg.       Acc.Sg.

|                       |              |             |                   |




List of Abbreviations

ujuṃ         karoti    medhāvī  usu+kāro        va      tejanaṃ
|                   |               |          |        |            |            |

Adj.n.     V.act.in.      N.m.   N.m. Adj.m.    part.     N.n.

Acc.Sg.  3.Sg.pres.  Nom.Sg.   |     Nom.Sg.   |       Acc.Sg.

|__________|                |          |_____|           |            |

______|                        |              |_________|_______|

    |_________________|                       |____|


Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

phandanaṃ: phandana-, Adj.: throbbing, trembling, wavering. Derived from the verb root phand- (to tremble). Nom.Sg.n. = phandanaṃ.

capalaṃ: capala-, Adj.: shaking, unsteady. Nom.Sg.n. = capalaṃ.

cittaṃ: citta-, N.n.: mind. Nom.Sg. = cittaṃ.

dūrakkhaṃ: dūrakkha-, Adj.: hard to guard. A compound of:
    du-, pref.: hard, difficult, bad.

    rakkha-, Adj.; to be guarded. Derived from the verb root rakkh- (to guard).

The form dūrakkha- is due to the euphonic combination (du + rakkha = dūrakkha).

Acc.Sg.n. = dūrakkhaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

dunnivārayaṃ: dunnivāraya-, Adj.: difficult to restrain, difficult to hold back. A compound of:
    du-, pref.: hard, difficult, bad.

    nivāraya-, Adj.: to be restrained, to be kept back.

The form dunnivāraya- is due to the euphonic combination (du + nivāraya = dunnivāraya).
Acc.Sg.n. = dunnivārayaṃ.

ujuṃ: uju-, Adj.: straight. Acc.Sg.n. = ujuṃ.

karoti, V,: do. The verb root kar-. 3.Sg.in.act.pres. = karoti.

medhāvī: medhāvin-, N.m.: intelligent person, wise one. Nom.Sg. = medhāvī.

List of Abbreviations

usukāro: usukāra-, N.m.: arrow-maker. A compound of:
    usu-, N.m.: arrow.

    kāra-, Adj.: one, who does; one, who makes. Derived from the verb kar-, to do.

Nom.Sg.m. = usukāro.

va, part.; like, as.

tejanaṃ: tejana-, N.n: arrow. Acc.Sg. = tejanaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject of this sentence is the word medhāvī (wise one, nominative singular) and the verb is karoti (does, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative present tense) with an attribute ujuṃ (straight, accusative singular). In fact, we can consider the whole phrase ujuṃ + karoti (makes straight) as a verbal phrase ujuṃkaroti (straightens), as is quite common in Classical Sanskrit.
    The object is the word cittaṃ (mind, accusative singular). It has four attributes: phandanaṃ (wavering), capalaṃ (unsteady), dūrakkhaṃ (hard to guard) and dunnivārayaṃ (difficult to restrain). They all agree with the object, so they are in accusative singular.

    There is a clause, usukāro va tejanaṃ (like an arrow-maker an arrow). Here, the subject is usukāro (arrow-maker, nominative singular). As verb serves the verbal phrase from the main sentence (ujuṃ karoti, straightens). The object is tejanaṃ (arrow, accusative singular). The particle va (as, like) connects the clause to the main sentence.


    Once the Buddha was staying on Cālika mountain. One of the monks, Meghiya Thera was attending upon him. This Thera saw a nice mango grove and asked the Buddha for permission to go there for meditation. But there were no other monks at that time and the Buddha needed an attendance. So he told Meghiya to wait for arrival of somebody else and then he could go.
    But Meghiya wanted to go really badly, so he asked the Buddha again and again, until he got his permission. He went to the grove and started to meditate, only to find out that his mind was wandering. He stayed there the whole day, but made no progress.

    In the evening he reported to the Buddha, how he was all the time assailed by thoughts associated with senses, ill will and cruelty. The Buddha told him the verses 33 and 34 and Meghiya attained Sotāpatti, the first stage on the way to awakenment.

Sentence pronunciation:

Sentence pronunciation

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